PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT5G20240.1
Common NameF5O24.130, PI
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Protein Properties Length: 208aa    MW: 24046.9 Da    PI: 9.4543
Description MIKC_MADS family protein
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT5G20240.1genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
       SRF-TF  1 krienksnrqvtfskRrngilKKAeELSvLCdaevaviifsstgklyeys 50
                 krien  nr vtfskRrng+ KKA+E+ vLCda+va+iif+s+gk+ +y+
                 79********************************************9997 PP

        K-box   1 yqkssgksleeakaeslqqelakLkkeienLqreqRhllGedLesLslkeLqqLeqqLekslkkiRskKnellleqieelqkkekelqeenkaLrkkl 98 
                  yqk sgk+l++ak+e+l++e++++kke+++Lq e+Rhl+Ged++sL+lk+L+ +e+++e++l k+R++++e+l+++ ++ +++ +e+++ + +L+++ 
                  899********************************************************************************************997 PP

        K-box  99 e 99 
  AT5G20240.1 169 M 169
                  6 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
SMARTSM004325.8E-38160IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PROSITE profilePS5006630.445161IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
CDDcd002651.34E-37280No hitNo description
SuperFamilySSF554559.03E-34296IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PRINTSPR004043.1E-26323IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PROSITE patternPS003500357IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PfamPF003191.5E-211057IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PRINTSPR004043.1E-262338IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PRINTSPR004043.1E-263859IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PfamPF014865.1E-1682164IPR002487Transcription factor, K-box
PROSITE profilePS5129713.40684170IPR002487Transcription factor, K-box
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0006355Biological Processregulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0010093Biological Processspecification of floral organ identity
GO:0030154Biological Processcell differentiation
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0005737Cellular Componentcytoplasm
GO:0003677Molecular FunctionDNA binding
GO:0003700Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0005515Molecular Functionprotein binding
GO:0046983Molecular Functionprotein dimerization activity
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0000013anatomycauline leaf
PO:0000037anatomyshoot apex
PO:0000293anatomyguard cell
PO:0003022anatomylateral root cap of primary root
PO:0006081anatomyprimary root apical meristem
PO:0009009anatomyplant embryo
PO:0009025anatomyvascular leaf
PO:0009052anatomyflower pedicel
PO:0020149anatomyquiescent center
PO:0025022anatomycollective leaf structure
PO:0001054developmental stagevascular leaf senescent stage
PO:0001078developmental stageplant embryo cotyledonary stage
PO:0001081developmental stagemature plant embryo stage
PO:0001185developmental stageplant embryo globular stage
PO:0004507developmental stageplant embryo bilateral stage
PO:0007095developmental stageLP.08 eight leaves visible stage
PO:0007611developmental stagepetal differentiation and expansion stage
PO:0007616developmental stageflowering stage
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 208 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
3D Structure ? help Back to Top
PDB ID Evalue Query Start Query End Hit Start Hit End Description
6bz1_A3e-17191183MEF2 CHIMERA
6bz1_B3e-17191183MEF2 CHIMERA
6bz1_C3e-17191183MEF2 CHIMERA
6bz1_D3e-17191183MEF2 CHIMERA
Search in ModeBase
Expression -- UniGene ? help Back to Top
UniGene ID E-value Expressed in
At.214030.0bud| inflorescence
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
Expression AtlasAT5G20240-
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIRFloral homeotic gene encoding a MADS domain transcription factor. Required for the specification of petal and stamen identities.
UniProtProbable transcription factor involved in the genetic control of flower development. Is required for normal development of petals and stamens in the wild-type flower. Forms a heterodimer with APETALA3 that is required for autoregulation of both AP3 and PI genes. AP3/PI heterodimer interacts with APETALA1 or SEPALLATA3 to form a ternary complex that could be responsible for the regulation of the genes involved in the flower development. AP3/PI heterodimer activates the expression of NAP. AP3/PI prevents GATA22/GNL and GATA21/GNC expression (PubMed:18417639). {ECO:0000269|PubMed:18417639, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8565821, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9489703}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. C-terminal PI motif not essential for floral organ identity function
    [PMID: 17965182]
  2. BNQ genes Are negatively regulated by AP3 and PI in petals.
    [PMID: 20305124]
  3. These results imply considerable changes in the composition and topology of the gene network controlled by AP3/PI during the course of flower development.
    [PMID: 22847437]
  4. Data indicate that C function regulator AGAMOUS and the B function regulators APETALA3 and PISTILLATA control many developmental processes in conjunction, as well as independent activities.
    [PMID: 23821642]
Binding Motif ? help Back to Top
Motif ID Method Source Motif file
Motif logo
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
Regulation -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtINDUCTION: Positively regulated by the meristem identity proteins APETALA1 and LEAFY with the cooperation of UFO. Repressed by silencing mediated by polycomb group (PcG) protein complex containing EMF1 and EMF2. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11283333, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19783648}.
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Upstream Regulators) ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G69120 (A), AT3G23130 (R), AT3G54340 (A), AT4G36920 (A), AT5G20240 (A), AT5G61850 (A)
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Target Genes) ? help Back to Top
Source Target Gene (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G57990(A), AT1G69120(R), AT1G69180(A), AT1G69490(A), AT2G15890(A), AT2G29350(A), AT3G23130(A), AT3G54340(A), AT4G26150(R), AT4G29130(A), AT4G30270(A), AT4G35770(A), AT5G20240(A), AT5G26340(A), AT5G56860(R)
Interaction -- BIND ? help Back to Top
Source Intact With Description
BINDAT1G69120AP1 interacts with PI.
BINDAT5G20240PI interacts with itself.
Interaction ? help Back to Top
Source Intact With
BioGRIDAT5G20240, AT1G24260, AT1G69120, AT1G69690
IntActSearch P48007
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT5G20240
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankATHMADSBOX0.0D30807.1 Arabidopsis thaliana PISTILLATA mRNA for PI protein, complete cds.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_197524.11e-152K-box region and MADS-box transcription factor family protein
SwissprotP480071e-153PIST_ARATH; Floral homeotic protein PISTILLATA
STRINGAT5G20240.11e-152(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Orthologous Group ? help Back to Top
LineageOrthologous Group IDTaxa NumberGene Number
Representative plantOGRP53021222
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Yung MH,Schaffer R,Putterill J
    Identification of genes expressed during early Arabidopsis carpel development by mRNA differential display: characterisation of ATCEL2, a novel endo-1,4-beta-D-glucanase gene.
    Plant J., 1999. 17(2): p. 203-8
  2. Chen Q, et al.
    The Arabidopsis FILAMENTOUS FLOWER gene is required for flower formation.
    Development, 1999. 126(12): p. 2715-26
  3. Kramer EM,Irish VF
    Evolution of genetic mechanisms controlling petal development.
    Nature, 1999. 399(6732): p. 144-8
  4. Moon YH,Jung JY,Kang HG,An G
    Identification of a rice APETALA3 homologue by yeast two-hybrid screening.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 1999. 40(1): p. 167-77
  5. Lawton-Rauh AL,Buckler ES,Purugganan MD
    Patterns of molecular evolution among paralogous floral homeotic genes.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 1999. 16(8): p. 1037-45
  6. Mouradov A, et al.
    A DEF/GLO-like MADS-box gene from a gymnosperm: Pinus radiata contains an ortholog of angiosperm B class floral homeotic genes.
    Dev. Genet., 1999. 25(3): p. 245-52
  7. Samach A, et al.
    The UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS gene of Arabidopsis thaliana is an F-box protein required for normal patterning and growth in the floral meristem.
    Plant J., 1999. 20(4): p. 433-45
  8. Honma T,Goto K
    The Arabidopsis floral homeotic gene PISTILLATA is regulated by discrete cis-elements responsive to induction and maintenance signals.
    Development, 2000. 127(10): p. 2021-30
  9. Penmetsa RV,Cook DR
    Production and characterization of diverse developmental mutants of Medicago truncatula.
    Plant Physiol., 2000. 123(4): p. 1387-98
  10. Sakai H,Krizek BA,Jacobsen SE,Meyerowitz EM
    Regulation of SUP expression identifies multiple regulators involved in arabidopsis floral meristem development.
    Plant Cell, 2000. 12(9): p. 1607-18
  11. Sheppard LA, et al.
    A DEFICIENS homolog from the dioecious tree black cottonwood is expressed in female and male floral meristems of the two-whorled, unisexual flowers.
    Plant Physiol., 2000. 124(2): p. 627-40
  12. Ren T,Qu F,Morris TJ
    HRT gene function requires interaction between a NAC protein and viral capsid protein to confer resistance to turnip crinkle virus.
    Plant Cell, 2000. 12(10): p. 1917-26
  13. Riechmann JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
    Science, 2000. 290(5499): p. 2105-10
  14. Yao J,Dong Y,Morris BA
    Parthenocarpic apple fruit production conferred by transposon insertion mutations in a MADS-box transcription factor.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2001. 98(3): p. 1306-11
  15. Honma T,Goto K
    Complexes of MADS-box proteins are sufficient to convert leaves into floral organs.
    Nature, 2001. 409(6819): p. 525-9
  16. Ng M,Yanofsky MF
    Activation of the Arabidopsis B class homeotic genes by APETALA1.
    Plant Cell, 2001. 13(4): p. 739-53
  17. G
    early bolting in short days: an Arabidopsis mutation that causes early flowering and partially suppresses the floral phenotype of leafy.
    Plant Cell, 2001. 13(5): p. 1011-24
  18. Prasad K,Sriram P,Kumar CS,Kushalappa K,Vijayraghavan U
    Ectopic expression of rice OsMADS1 reveals a role in specifying the lemma and palea, grass floral organs analogous to sepals.
    Dev. Genes Evol., 2001. 211(6): p. 281-90
  19. Efremova N, et al.
    Epidermal control of floral organ identity by class B homeotic genes in Antirrhinum and Arabidopsis.
    Development, 2001. 128(14): p. 2661-71
  20. Zhao D,Yu Q,Chen M,Ma H
    The ASK1 gene regulates B function gene expression in cooperation with UFO and LEAFY in Arabidopsis.
    Development, 2001. 128(14): p. 2735-46
  21. Li J,Jia D,Chen X
    HUA1, a regulator of stamen and carpel identities in Arabidopsis, codes for a nuclear RNA binding protein.
    Plant Cell, 2001. 13(10): p. 2269-81
  22. Tzeng TY,Yang CH
    A MADS box gene from lily (Lilium Longiflorum) is sufficient to generate dominant negative mutation by interacting with PISTILLATA (PI) in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2001. 42(10): p. 1156-68
  23. Bereterbide A,Hernould M,Farbos I,Glimelius K,Mouras A
    Restoration of stamen development and production of functional pollen in an alloplasmic CMS tobacco line by ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana SUPERMAN gene.
    Plant J., 2002. 29(5): p. 607-15
  24. Western TL,Cheng Y,Liu J,Chen X
    HUA ENHANCER2, a putative DExH-box RNA helicase, maintains homeotic B and C gene expression in Arabidopsis.
    Development, 2002. 129(7): p. 1569-81
  25. Goff SA, et al.
    A draft sequence of the rice genome (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica).
    Science, 2002. 296(5565): p. 92-100
  26. Olsen KM,Womack A,Garrett AR,Suddith JI,Purugganan MD
    Contrasting evolutionary forces in the Arabidopsis thaliana floral developmental pathway.
    Genetics, 2002. 160(4): p. 1641-50
  27. Skipper M
    Genes from the APETALA3 and PISTILLATA lineages are expressed in developing vascular bundles of the tuberous rhizome, flowering stem and flower Primordia of Eranthis hyemalis.
    Ann. Bot., 2002. 89(1): p. 83-8
  28. Sundström J,Engström P
    Conifer reproductive development involves B-type MADS-box genes with distinct and different activities in male organ primordia.
    Plant J., 2002. 31(2): p. 161-9
  29. Huala E,Sussex IM
    LEAFY Interacts with Floral Homeotic Genes to Regulate Arabidopsis Floral Development.
    Plant Cell, 1992. 4(8): p. 901-913
  30. Schultz EA,Pickett FB,Haughn GW
    The FLO10 Gene Product Regulates the Expression Domain of Homeotic Genes AP3 and PI in Arabidopsis Flowers.
    Plant Cell, 1991. 3(11): p. 1221-1237
  31. Markel H,Chandler J,Werr W
    Translational fusions with the engrailed repressor domain efficiently convert plant transcription factors into dominant-negative functions.
    Nucleic Acids Res., 2002. 30(21): p. 4709-19
  32. Zik M,Irish VF
    Global identification of target genes regulated by APETALA3 and PISTILLATA floral homeotic gene action.
    Plant Cell, 2003. 15(1): p. 207-22
  33. J
    DNA sequence variation in BpMADS2 gene in two populations of Betula pendula.
    Mol. Ecol., 2003. 12(2): p. 369-84
  34. Yoshida K,Kamiya T,Kawabe A,Miyashita NT
    DNA polymorphism at the ACAULIS5 locus of the wild plant Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Genes Genet. Syst., 2003. 78(1): p. 11-21
  35. Alvarez-Venegas R, et al.
    ATX-1, an Arabidopsis homolog of trithorax, activates flower homeotic genes.
    Curr. Biol., 2003. 13(8): p. 627-37
  36. Lamb RS,Irish VF
    Functional divergence within the APETALA3/PISTILLATA floral homeotic gene lineages.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2003. 100(11): p. 6558-63
  37. Kotake T,Takada S,Nakahigashi K,Ohto M,Goto K
    Arabidopsis TERMINAL FLOWER 2 gene encodes a heterochromatin protein 1 homolog and represses both FLOWERING LOCUS T to regulate flowering time and several floral homeotic genes.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2003. 44(6): p. 555-64
  38. Parenicová L, et al.
    Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the complete MADS-box transcription factor family in Arabidopsis: new openings to the MADS world.
    Plant Cell, 2003. 15(7): p. 1538-51
  39. Golovkin M,Reddy AS
    Expression of U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein 70K antisense transcript using APETALA3 promoter suppresses the development of sepals and petals.
    Plant Physiol., 2003. 132(4): p. 1884-91
  40. Yang Y,Fanning L,Jack T
    The K domain mediates heterodimerization of the Arabidopsis floral organ identity proteins, APETALA3 and PISTILLATA.
    Plant J., 2003. 33(1): p. 47-59
  41. Yang Y,Xiang H,Jack T
    pistillata-5, an Arabidopsis B class mutant with strong defects in petal but not in stamen development.
    Plant J., 2003. 33(1): p. 177-88
  42. Bowman JL, et al.
    SUPERMAN, a regulator of floral homeotic genes in Arabidopsis.
    Development, 1992. 114(3): p. 599-615
  43. Byzova M,Verduyn C,De Brouwer D,De Block M
    Transforming petals into sepaloid organs in Arabidopsis and oilseed rape: implementation of the hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing technology in an organ-specific manner.
    Planta, 2004. 218(3): p. 379-87
  44. Stellari GM,Jaramillo MA,Kramer EM
    Evolution of the APETALA3 and PISTILLATA lineages of MADS-box-containing genes in the basal angiosperms.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2004. 21(3): p. 506-19
  45. Wellmer F,Riechmann JL,Alves-Ferreira M,Meyerowitz EM
    Genome-wide analysis of spatial gene expression in Arabidopsis flowers.
    Plant Cell, 2004. 16(5): p. 1314-26
  46. Yu H, et al.
    Floral homeotic genes are targets of gibberellin signaling in flower development.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2004. 101(20): p. 7827-32
  47. Lee JY, et al.
    Activation of CRABS CLAW in the Nectaries and Carpels of Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2005. 17(1): p. 25-36
  48. Yang Y,Jack T
    Defining subdomains of the K domain important for protein-protein interactions of plant MADS proteins.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2004. 55(1): p. 45-59
  49. Gómez-Mena C,de Folter S,Costa MM,Angenent GC,Sablowski R
    Transcriptional program controlled by the floral homeotic gene AGAMOUS during early organogenesis.
    Development, 2005. 132(3): p. 429-38
  50. Zahn LM,Leebens-Mack J,DePamphilis CW,Ma H,Theissen G
    To B or Not to B a flower: the role of DEFICIENS and GLOBOSA orthologs in the evolution of the angiosperms.
    J. Hered., 2005 May-Jun. 96(3): p. 225-40
  51. Di Stilio VS,Kramer EM,Baum DA
    Floral MADS box genes and homeotic gender dimorphism in Thalictrum dioicum (Ranunculaceae) - a new model for the study of dioecy.
    Plant J., 2005. 41(5): p. 755-66
  52. Kazama Y,Koizumi A,Uchida W,Ageez A,Kawano S
    Expression of the floral B-function gene SLM2 in female flowers of Silene latifolia infected with the smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2005. 46(5): p. 806-11
  53. Tsai WC, et al.
    PeMADS6, a GLOBOSA/PISTILLATA-like gene in Phalaenopsis equestris involved in petaloid formation, and correlated with flower longevity and ovary development.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2005. 46(7): p. 1125-39
  54. Teixeira RT,Farbos I,Glimelius K
    Expression levels of meristem identity and homeotic genes are modified by nuclear-mitochondrial interactions in alloplasmic male-sterile lines of Brassica napus.
    Plant J., 2005. 42(5): p. 731-42
  55. Nawy T, et al.
    Transcriptional profile of the Arabidopsis root quiescent center.
    Plant Cell, 2005. 17(7): p. 1908-25
  56. Schneider A, et al.
    A transposon-based activation-tagging population in Arabidopsis thaliana (TAMARA) and its application in the identification of dominant developmental and metabolic mutations.
    FEBS Lett., 2005. 579(21): p. 4622-8
  57. Berbel A, et al.
    Functional conservation of PISTILLATA activity in a pea homolog lacking the PI motif.
    Plant Physiol., 2005. 139(1): p. 174-85
  58. Kim S, et al.
    Expression of floral MADS-box genes in basal angiosperms: implications for the evolution of floral regulators.
    Plant J., 2005. 43(5): p. 724-44
  59. Nakahigashi K,Jasencakova Z,Schubert I,Goto K
    The Arabidopsis heterochromatin protein1 homolog (TERMINAL FLOWER2) silences genes within the euchromatic region but not genes positioned in heterochromatin.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2005. 46(11): p. 1747-56
  60. Xu Y,Teo LL,Zhou J,Kumar PP,Yu H
    Floral organ identity genes in the orchid Dendrobium crumenatum.
    Plant J., 2006. 46(1): p. 54-68
  61. Sundström JF,Nakayama N,Glimelius K,Irish VF
    Direct regulation of the floral homeotic APETALA1 gene by APETALA3 and PISTILLATA in Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2006. 46(4): p. 593-600
  62. Guyomarc'h S, et al.
    MGOUN3: evidence for chromatin-mediated regulation of FLC expression.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2006. 57(9): p. 2111-9
  63. Hurtado L,Farrona S,Reyes JC
    The putative SWI/SNF complex subunit BRAHMA activates flower homeotic genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2006. 62(1-2): p. 291-304
  64. Bowman JL,Smyth DR,Meyerowitz EM
    Genetic interactions among floral homeotic genes of Arabidopsis.
    Development, 1991. 112(1): p. 1-20
  65. Szécsi J, et al.
    BIGPETALp, a bHLH transcription factor is involved in the control of Arabidopsis petal size.
    EMBO J., 2006. 25(16): p. 3912-20
  66. Germann S,Juul-Jensen T,Letarnec B,Gaudin V
    DamID, a new tool for studying plant chromatin profiling in vivo, and its use to identify putative LHP1 target loci.
    Plant J., 2006. 48(1): p. 153-63
  67. Carlsson J, et al.
    Microarray analysis reveals altered expression of a large number of nuclear genes in developing cytoplasmic male sterile Brassica napus flowers.
    Plant J., 2007. 49(3): p. 452-62
  68. Kalivas A,Pasentsis K,Polidoros AN,Tsaftaris AS
    Heterotopic expression of B-class floral homeotic genes PISTILLATA/GLOBOSA supports a modified model for crocus (Crocus sativus L.) flower formation.
    DNA Seq., 2007. 18(2): p. 120-30
  69. Yadav SR,Prasad K,Vijayraghavan U
    Divergent regulatory OsMADS2 functions control size, shape and differentiation of the highly derived rice floret second-whorl organ.
    Genetics, 2007. 176(1): p. 283-94
  70. Zhao L,Kim Y,Dinh TT,Chen X
    miR172 regulates stem cell fate and defines the inner boundary of APETALA3 and PISTILLATA expression domain in Arabidopsis floral meristems.
    Plant J., 2007. 51(5): p. 840-9
  71. Jaramillo MA,Kramer EM
    Molecular evolution of the petal and stamen identity genes, APETALA3 and PISTILLATA, after petal loss in the Piperales.
    Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 2007. 44(2): p. 598-609
  72. Cao A,Jain A,Baldwin JC,Raghothama KG
    Phosphate differentially regulates 14-3-3 family members and GRF9 plays a role in Pi-starvation induced responses.
    Planta, 2007. 226(5): p. 1219-30
  73. Nag A,Yang Y,Jack T
    DORNROSCHEN-LIKE, an AP2 gene, is necessary for stamen emergence in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2007. 65(3): p. 219-32
  74. Poupin MJ, et al.
    Isolation of the three grape sub-lineages of B-class MADS-box TM6, PISTILLATA and APETALA3 genes which are differentially expressed during flower and fruit development.
    Gene, 2007. 404(1-2): p. 10-24
  75. Piwarzyk E,Yang Y,Jack T
    Conserved C-terminal motifs of the Arabidopsis proteins APETALA3 and PISTILLATA are dispensable for floral organ identity function.
    Plant Physiol., 2007. 145(4): p. 1495-505
  76. Ackerman CM, et al.
    B-class MADS-box genes in trioecious papaya: two paleoAP3 paralogs, CpTM6-1 and CpTM6-2, and a PI ortholog CpPI.
    Planta, 2008. 227(4): p. 741-53
  77. Zhang B,Su X,Zhou X
    A MADS-box gene of Populus deltoides expressed during flower development and in vegetative organs.
    Tree Physiol., 2008. 28(6): p. 929-34
  78. Mara CD,Irish VF
    Two GATA transcription factors are downstream effectors of floral homeotic gene action in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2008. 147(2): p. 707-18
  79. Leseberg CH, et al.
    Interaction study of MADS-domain proteins in tomato.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2008. 59(8): p. 2253-65
  80. Li J, et al.
    The S locus-linked Primula homeotic mutant sepaloid shows characteristics of a B-function mutant but does not result from mutation in a B-function gene.
    Plant J., 2008. 56(1): p. 1-12
  81. Melzer R,Verelst W,Theissen G
    The class E floral homeotic protein SEPALLATA3 is sufficient to loop DNA in 'floral quartet'-like complexes in vitro.
    Nucleic Acids Res., 2009. 37(1): p. 144-57
  82. Cantone C,Sica M,Gaudio L,Aceto S
    The OrcPI locus: genomic organization, expression pattern, and noncoding regions variability in Orchis italica (Orchidaceae) and related species.
    Gene, 2009. 434(1-2): p. 9-15
  83. Immink RG, et al.
    SEPALLATA3: the 'glue' for MADS box transcription factor complex formation.
    Genome Biol., 2009. 10(2): p. R24
  84. Melzer R,Theissen G
    Reconstitution of 'floral quartets' in vitro involving class B and class E floral homeotic proteins.
    Nucleic Acids Res., 2009. 37(8): p. 2723-36
  85. Benlloch R, et al.
    Analysis of B function in legumes: PISTILLATA proteins do not require the PI motif for floral organ development in Medicago truncatula.
    Plant J., 2009. 60(1): p. 102-11
  86. Liu X, et al.
    The SPOROCYTELESS/NOZZLE gene is involved in controlling stamen identity in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2009. 151(3): p. 1401-11
  87. Kim SY,Zhu T,Sung ZR
    Epigenetic regulation of gene programs by EMF1 and EMF2 in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2010. 152(2): p. 516-28
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