PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT5G15840.1
Common NameBBX1, CO, F14F8_220, FG
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Family CO-like
Protein Properties Length: 373aa    MW: 41986.4 Da    PI: 6.9562
Description B-box type zinc finger protein with CCT domain
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT5G15840.1genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
     zf-B_box  2 eerkCpeHeekelqlfCedCqqllCedClleeHkg......Htvv 40
                 ++r C+++ ++  + +C+ ++ +lC +C  + H+       H++v
                 6789*******9*********************667788888876 PP

     zf-B_box   2 eerkCpeHeekelqlfCedCqqllCedClleeHkg......Htvvpl 42 
                  + r+C+ +e+ ++ + Ce ++  lC  C +e H+       H++vp+
                  5689*****************************66899999**9997 PP

          CCT   1 ReaallRYkeKrktRkFeKkirYesRKavAesRpRvKGrFvkq 43 
                  Rea++lRY+eKrktRkFeK+irY+sRKa+Ae RpRv+GrF+k+
                  9****************************************98 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
PROSITE profilePS5011911.221562IPR000315B-box-type zinc finger
SMARTSM003367.9E-91562IPR000315B-box-type zinc finger
CDDcd000213.32E-81862No hitNo description
PROSITE profilePS5011912.14558105IPR000315B-box-type zinc finger
PfamPF006431.6E-860105IPR000315B-box-type zinc finger
CDDcd000218.05E-1061105No hitNo description
SMARTSM003369.6E-1263105IPR000315B-box-type zinc finger
PROSITE profilePS5101716.281306348IPR010402CCT domain
PfamPF062036.8E-17306348IPR010402CCT domain
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0006355Biological Processregulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0007623Biological Processcircadian rhythm
GO:0009909Biological Processregulation of flower development
GO:0010018Biological Processfar-red light signaling pathway
GO:0030154Biological Processcell differentiation
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0003677Molecular FunctionDNA binding
GO:0003700Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0005515Molecular Functionprotein binding
GO:0008270Molecular Functionzinc ion binding
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0000037anatomyshoot apex
PO:0000293anatomyguard cell
PO:0009009anatomyplant embryo
PO:0009025anatomyvascular leaf
PO:0009052anatomyflower pedicel
PO:0020137anatomyleaf apex
PO:0025022anatomycollective leaf structure
PO:0001078developmental stageplant embryo cotyledonary stage
PO:0001081developmental stagemature plant embryo stage
PO:0001185developmental stageplant embryo globular stage
PO:0004507developmental stageplant embryo bilateral stage
PO:0007064developmental stageLP.12 twelve leaves visible stage
PO:0007115developmental stageLP.04 four leaves visible stage
PO:0007611developmental stagepetal differentiation and expansion stage
PO:0007616developmental stageflowering stage
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 373 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
Expression AtlasAT5G15840-
Expression -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniprotTISSUE SPECIFICITY: Expressed in leaves, shoots and shoot apical meristem. Detected in the vascular tissue of the hypocotyl, the cotyledons and the leaves. Restricted to the protoxylem and phloem in young inflorescence stems and to the phloem only in older inflorescences. Also detected in the vascular tissue of the root. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15229176}.
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIREncodes a protein showing similarities to zinc finger transcription factors, involved in regulation of flowering under long days. Acts upstream of FT and SOC1.
UniProtTranscription factor that acts in the long day flowering pathway and may mediate between the circadian clock and the control of flowering. Plays a role in the regulation of flowering time by acting on 'SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO1', 'TERMINAL FLOWER 1' and 'FLOWERING LOCUS T'. Also regulates P5CS2 and ACS10 (involved in proline and ethylene biosynthesis, respectively). Regulates the expression of NAKR1 by binding to the 5'-TGTG(N2-3)ATG-3' motif (PubMed:27255839). {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10834834, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11323677, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21950734, ECO:0000269|PubMed:27255839}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. CO-derived signal(s), or possibly CO itself, fits the definition of the hypothetical flowering stimulant, florigen.
    [PMID: 15299137]
  2. findings show that FKF1 controls daily CONSTANS expression in part by degrading CYCLING DOF FACTOR 1 (CDF1), a repressor of CONSTANS transcription
    [PMID: 16002617]
  3. Promotes flowering specifically under long days.
    [PMID: 16006578]
  4. inactivation of FT caused down-regulation of SOC1 even in plants overexpressing CO, indicating that FT is required for SOC1 induction by CO
    [PMID: 16183837]
  5. RFI2 represses the expression of CONSTANS.
    [PMID: 16709197]
  6. These data suggest that CO might replace At HAP2 in the HAP complex to form a trimeric CO/At HAP3/At HAP5 complex.
    [PMID: 17138697]
  7. COb was retained for a long period after duplication, but a recent fixation of a detrimental mutation, possibly as an effect of a bottleneck, resulted in its nonfunctionalization in brassica nigra.
    [PMID: 17344804]
  8. The role of clock-associated genes PRR9, PRR7 and PRR5 are involved in activation of CONSTANS and CO-FLOWERING LOCUS T are reported.
    [PMID: 17504813]
  9. Results suggest that COP1 acts as a repressor of flowering by promoting the ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of CO in darkness, thereby stabilizing CO, activating FT transcription, and inducing flowering.
    [PMID: 18296627]
  10. determines flowering timing with circadian clock.
    [PMID: 18453150]
  11. a positive regulator of floral induction, as an OBF4-interacting protein
    [PMID: 18587275]
  12. regulation of CO by light quality likely plays a key role in the regulation of flowering time in natural environments
    [PMID: 18667727]
  13. A quantitative balance between the activator CO and the repressor TEMPRANILLO genes determines Flowering locus T levels.
    [PMID: 18718758]
  14. Data suggest that antagonism between GIGANTEA and DOF1/2 transcription factors contributes to photoperiodic flowering by modulating an underlying diurnal rhythm in CONSTANS transcript levels.
    [PMID: 19619493]
  15. CONSTANS was found to bind DNA via a unique sequence element containing a consensus TGTG(N2-3)ATG motif present in tandem within the FLOWERING LOCUS T promoter.
    [PMID: 20406410]
  16. CONSTANS is repressed by the E3 ligase DAY NEUTRAL FLOWERING, which prevents early flowering in short days.
    [PMID: 20435904]
  17. CONSTANS (CO) forms a functional complex with ASYMMETRIC LEAVES 1 (AS1) to regulate FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) expression and that AS1 plays different roles in two regulatory pathways, both of which concomitantly regulate the precise timing of flowering.
    [PMID: 21950734]
  18. PFT1 is an activator of CO transcription, and also of FT transcription, in a CO-independent manner. PFT1 acts as a hub, integrating a variety of interdependent environmental stimuli, including light quality and jasmonic acid-dependent defences.
    [PMID: 21985558]
  19. Overexpression of all FBH genes drastically elevated CO levels and caused early flowering regardless of photoperiod, whereas CO levels were reduced in the fbh quadruple mutants.
    [PMID: 22334645]
  20. HOS1 is required to modulate precisely the timing of CO accumulation and that this regulation is essential to maintain low levels of FT during the first part of the day and, subsequently, a correct photoperiodic response in Arabidopsis.
    [PMID: 22408073]
  21. study demonstrates that FKF1 protein stabilizes CONSTANS (CO)protein in the afternoon in long days; together with CO transcriptional regulation, FKF1 protein controls robust FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) mRNA induction through multiple feedforward mechanisms that accurately control flowering timing
    [PMID: 22628657]
  22. the HOS1-CO module contributes to the fine-tuning of photoperiodic flowering under short term temperature fluctuations, which often occur during local weather disturbances.
    [PMID: 23135282]
  23. The lack of flowering promotion activity by COL1 and COL2 is mainly attributed to the differences between CO and the COL1 and COL2 proteins in the amino acid sequence encoded by their first exons.
    [PMID: 23265320]
  24. Photoperiodic flowering regulators CO and GI are involved in FT- and TSF-mediated stomatal opening induced by blue light.
    [PMID: 23669744]
  25. Natural variation in the cis-regulatory sequence in CONSTANS underlies flowering time diversity in Arabidopsis.
    [PMID: 24736505]
  26. Regulation of arabidopsis flowering by the histone mark readers MRG1/2 via interaction with CONSTANS to modulate FT expression
    [PMID: 25211338]
  27. BBX19 as a circadian clock output that depletes the active CO pool to accurately monitor daylength and precisely time FT expression.
    [PMID: 25228341]
  28. report that TARGET OF EAT1 (TOE1) and related proteins interact with the activation domain of CONSTANS (CO) and CO-like (COL) proteins and inhibit CO activity.
    [PMID: 25934507]
  29. BOIs and CO antagonistically regulate flowering through FT and SOC1.
    [PMID: 26298008]
  30. CO protein phosphorylation contributes to the photoperiodic flowering response by enhancing the rate of CO turnover via activity of the COP1 ubiquitin ligase.
    [PMID: 26358558]
  31. Red light-mediated degradation of CO protein by HOS1 ligase regulates photoperiodic flowering in Arabidopsis.
    [PMID: 26373454]
  32. these findings suggest that regulation of flowering by gibberellin (GA) signaling in leaves under long days is mediated through repression of DELLA proteins on CO, providing a molecular link between DELLA proteins, key components in GA signaling pathway, and CO, a critical flowering activator in photoperiod signaling pathway.
    [PMID: 26801684]
  33. CO expression during night time temperatures and flowering
    [PMID: 26856528]
  34. Interaction of CO with miP1a/b/TPL causes late flowering due to a failure in the induction of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) expression under inductive long day conditions.
    [PMID: 27015278]
  35. A heavy-metal-associated (HMA) domain-containing protein, SODIUM POTASSIUM ROOT DEFECTIVE 1 (NaKR1), is activated by CONSTANS (CO) under long-day conditions and regulates long-distance movement of FT in Arabidopsis. Loss of function of NaKR1 compromises FT transport to shoot apices through sieve elements, causing late flowering under long-day conditions.
    [PMID: 27255839]
  36. Results indicate that the DELLA-CONSTANS (CO) cascade inhibits CO/FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-mediated flowering under LDs, which thus provide evidence to directly integrate gibberellin (GA) and photoperiod signaling to synergistically modulate flowering under long days (LDs).
    [PMID: 27406167]
  37. Data indicate that CONSTANS (CO) plays an active role in sustaining its diurnal accumulation dynamics during Arabidopsis photoperiodic flowering.
    [PMID: 27607358]
  38. The clock-controlled mechanism by which photoperiodic information regulates CONSTANS function is the key mechanism in Arabidopsis.
    [PMID: 27688622]
  39. PRR-mediated stabilization increases binding of CO to the promoter of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), leading to enhanced FT transcription and early flowering under these conditions.
    [PMID: 28270524]
  40. Our yeast one-hybrid analysis revealed that class II CIN-TCPs, including TCP4, bind to the CO promoter. TCP4 induces CO expression around dusk by directly associating with the CO promoter in vivo. In addition, TCP4 binds to another flowering regulator, GIGANTEA (GI), in the nucleus, and induces CO expression in a GI-dependent manner
    [PMID: 28628608]
  41. Data suggest that VASCULAR PLANT ONE-ZINC FINGER1 (VOZ1) and VOZ2 modulate CONSTANS (CO) function to promote flowering.
    [PMID: 29507119]
  42. antagonizes Polycomb repression to de-repress FLOWERING LOCUS T expression in response to inductive long days
    [PMID: 29667247]
  43. We also determined that CRY2 was recruited to the FT chromatin by CIB1 and CO and that all three proteins are bound to the same region within the FT promoter. Therefore, there is crosstalk between the CRY2-CO and CRY2-CIBs pathways, and CIB1 and CO act together to regulate FT transcription and flowering.
    [PMID: 30126927]
  44. AFP2 bridges CO protein and TPR2 to form the CO-AFP2-TPR2 complex.
    [PMID: 30514725]
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
Regulation -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtINDUCTION: Expressed with a circadian rhythm showing a broad peak between 12 hours and dawn. Higher expression under long days.
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Upstream Regulators) ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G01060 (R), AT1G51700 (R), AT2G02450 (R), AT2G46830 (R), AT3G07650 (R), AT5G37260 (R), AT5G62430 (R)
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Target Genes) ? help Back to Top
Source Target Gene (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G65480(A), AT1G69120(A), AT2G22630(A), AT2G45660(A), AT3G22231(A), AT4G20370(A), AT5G61850(A)
Interaction ? help Back to Top
Source Intact With
BioGRIDAT5G47640, AT1G08970, AT1G54830, AT1G56170
IntActSearch Q39057
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT5G15840
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankAY0865740.0AY086574.1 Arabidopsis thaliana clone 2588 mRNA, complete sequence.
GenBankX949370.0X94937.1 A.thaliana mRNA for CONSTANS protein.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_197088.10.0B-box type zinc finger protein with CCT domain-containing protein
SwissprotQ390570.0CONS_ARATH; Zinc finger protein CONSTANS
STRINGAT5G15840.10.0(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Orthologous Group ? help Back to Top
LineageOrthologous Group IDTaxa NumberGene Number
Representative plantOGRP6911767
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Aukerman MJ,Lee I,Weigel D,Amasino RM
    The Arabidopsis flowering-time gene LUMINIDEPENDENS is expressed primarily in regions of cell proliferation and encodes a nuclear protein that regulates LEAFY expression.
    Plant J., 1999. 18(2): p. 195-203
  2. Melzer S,Kampmann G,Chandler J,Apel K
    FPF1 modulates the competence to flowering in Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 1999. 18(4): p. 395-405
  3. Fowler S, et al.
    GIGANTEA: a circadian clock-controlled gene that regulates photoperiodic flowering in Arabidopsis and encodes a protein with several possible membrane-spanning domains.
    EMBO J., 1999. 18(17): p. 4679-88
  4. Yang CH,Chou ML
    FLD interacts with CO to affect both flowering time and floral initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 1999. 40(6): p. 647-50
  5. Soppe WJ,Bentsink L,Koornneef M
    The early-flowering mutant efs is involved in the autonomous promotion pathway of Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Development, 1999. 126(21): p. 4763-70
  6. Kobayashi Y,Kaya H,Goto K,Iwabuchi M,Araki T
    A pair of related genes with antagonistic roles in mediating flowering signals.
    Science, 1999. 286(5446): p. 1960-2
  7. Coupland G, et al.
    The regulation of flowering time by daylength in Arabidopsis.
    Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol., 1998. 51: p. 105-10
  8. Kurup S,Jones HD,Holdsworth MJ
    Interactions of the developmental regulator ABI3 with proteins identified from developing Arabidopsis seeds.
    Plant J., 2000. 21(2): p. 143-55
  9. Samach A, et al.
    Distinct roles of CONSTANS target genes in reproductive development of Arabidopsis.
    Science, 2000. 288(5471): p. 1613-6
  10. Onouchi H,Ige
    Mutagenesis of plants overexpressing CONSTANS demonstrates novel interactions among Arabidopsis flowering-time genes.
    Plant Cell, 2000. 12(6): p. 885-900
  11. Lee H, et al.
    The AGAMOUS-LIKE 20 MADS domain protein integrates floral inductive pathways in Arabidopsis.
    Genes Dev., 2000. 14(18): p. 2366-76
  12. Lagercrantz U,Axelsson T
    Rapid evolution of the family of CONSTANS LIKE genes in plants.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2000. 17(10): p. 1499-507
  13. Riechmann JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
    Science, 2000. 290(5499): p. 2105-10
  14. Michaels SD,Amasino RM
    Loss of FLOWERING LOCUS C activity eliminates the late-flowering phenotype of FRIGIDA and autonomous pathway mutations but not responsiveness to vernalization.
    Plant Cell, 2001. 13(4): p. 935-41
  15. Liu J,Yu J,McIntosh L,Kende H,Zeevaart JA
    Isolation of a CONSTANS ortholog from Pharbitis nil and its role in flowering.
    Plant Physiol., 2001. 125(4): p. 1821-30
  16. Suárez-López P, et al.
    CONSTANS mediates between the circadian clock and the control of flowering in Arabidopsis.
    Nature, 2001. 410(6832): p. 1116-20
  17. Ledger S,Strayer C,Ashton F,Kay SA,Putterill J
    Analysis of the function of two circadian-regulated CONSTANS-LIKE genes.
    Plant J., 2001. 26(1): p. 15-22
  18. Chou ML,Haung MD,Yang CH
    EMF genes interact with late-flowering genes in regulating floral initiation genes during shoot development in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2001. 42(5): p. 499-507
  19. Reeves PH,Coupland G
    Analysis of flowering time control in Arabidopsis by comparison of double and triple mutants.
    Plant Physiol., 2001. 126(3): p. 1085-91
  20. Samach A,Gover A
    Photoperiodism: the consistent use of CONSTANS.
    Curr. Biol., 2001. 11(16): p. R651-4
  21. Ohto M, et al.
    Effects of sugar on vegetative development and floral transition in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2001. 127(1): p. 252-61
  22. Axeisson T,Shavorskaya O,Lagercrantz U
    Multiple flowering time QTLs within several Brassica species could be the result of duplicated copies of one ancestral gene.
    Genome, 2001. 44(5): p. 856-64
  23. Robson F, et al.
    Functional importance of conserved domains in the flowering-time gene CONSTANS demonstrated by analysis of mutant alleles and transgenic plants.
    Plant J., 2001. 28(6): p. 619-31
  24. Mizoguchi T, et al.
    LHY and CCA1 are partially redundant genes required to maintain circadian rhythms in Arabidopsis.
    Dev. Cell, 2002. 2(5): p. 629-41
  25. Osterberg MK,Shavorskaya O,Lascoux M,Lagercrantz U
    Naturally occurring indel variation in the Brassica nigra COL1 gene is associated with variation in flowering time.
    Genetics, 2002. 161(1): p. 299-306
  26. Izawa T, et al.
    Phytochrome mediates the external light signal to repress FT orthologs in photoperiodic flowering of rice.
    Genes Dev., 2002. 16(15): p. 2006-20
  27. Hepworth SR,Valverde F,Ravenscroft D,Mouradov A,Coupland G
    Antagonistic regulation of flowering-time gene SOC1 by CONSTANS and FLC via separate promoter motifs.
    EMBO J., 2002. 21(16): p. 4327-37
  28. Halliday KJ,Koornneef M,Whitelam GC
    Phytochrome B and at Least One Other Phytochrome Mediate the Accelerated Flowering Response of Arabidopsis thaliana L. to Low Red/Far-Red Ratio.
    Plant Physiol., 1994. 104(4): p. 1311-1315
  29. Yanovsky MJ,Kay SA
    Molecular basis of seasonal time measurement in Arabidopsis.
    Nature, 2002. 419(6904): p. 308-12
  30. Roden LC,Song HR,Jackson S,Morris K,Carre IA
    Floral responses to photoperiod are correlated with the timing of rhythmic expression relative to dawn and dusk in Arabidopsis.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2002. 99(20): p. 13313-8
  31. Mart
    Control of photoperiod-regulated tuberization in potato by the Arabidopsis flowering-time gene CONSTANS.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2002. 99(23): p. 15211-6
  32. Davis SJ
    Photoperiodism: the coincidental perception of the season.
    Curr. Biol., 2002. 12(24): p. R841-3
  33. Moon YH, et al.
    EMF genes maintain vegetative development by repressing the flower program in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2003. 15(3): p. 681-93
  34. Griffiths S,Dunford RP,Coupland G,Laurie DA
    The evolution of CONSTANS-like gene families in barley, rice, and Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2003. 131(4): p. 1855-67
  35. Hayama R,Yokoi S,Tamaki S,Yano M,Shimamoto K
    Adaptation of photoperiodic control pathways produces short-day flowering in rice.
    Nature, 2003. 422(6933): p. 719-22
  36. Kim SJ,Moon J,Lee I,Maeng J,Kim SR
    Molecular cloning and expression analysis of a CONSTANS homologue, PnCOL1, from Pharbitis nil.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2003. 54(389): p. 1879-87
  37. Simpson GG
    Evolution of flowering in response to day length: flipping the CONSTANS switch.
    Bioessays, 2003. 25(9): p. 829-32
  38. Moon J, et al.
    The SOC1 MADS-box gene integrates vernalization and gibberellin signals for flowering in Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2003. 35(5): p. 613-23
  39. Nemoto Y,Kisaka M,Fuse T,Yano M,Ogihara Y
    Characterization and functional analysis of three wheat genes with homology to the CONSTANS flowering time gene in transgenic rice.
    Plant J., 2003. 36(1): p. 82-93
  40. Cremer F,Coupland G
    Distinct photoperiodic responses are conferred by the same genetic pathway in Arabidopsis and in rice.
    Trends Plant Sci., 2003. 8(9): p. 405-7
  41. Tzeng TY,Hsiao CC,Chi PJ,Yang CH
    Two lily SEPALLATA-like genes cause different effects on floral formation and floral transition in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2003. 133(3): p. 1091-101
  42. Schmid M, et al.
    Dissection of floral induction pathways using global expression analysis.
    Development, 2003. 130(24): p. 6001-12
  43. Yamada K, et al.
    Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome.
    Science, 2003. 302(5646): p. 842-6
  44. El-Din El-Assal S, et al.
    The role of cryptochrome 2 in flowering in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2003. 133(4): p. 1504-16
  45. Imaizumi T,Tran HG,Swartz TE,Briggs WR,Kay SA
    FKF1 is essential for photoperiodic-specific light signalling in Arabidopsis.
    Nature, 2003. 426(6964): p. 302-6
  46. Takada S,Goto K
    Terminal flower2, an Arabidopsis homolog of heterochromatin protein1, counteracts the activation of flowering locus T by constans in the vascular tissues of leaves to regulate flowering time.
    Plant Cell, 2003. 15(12): p. 2856-65
  47. Mart
    Salicylic acid regulates flowering time and links defence responses and reproductive development.
    Plant J., 2004. 37(2): p. 209-17
  48. Oda A,Fujiwara S,Kamada H,Coupland G,Mizoguchi T
    Antisense suppression of the Arabidopsis PIF3 gene does not affect circadian rhythms but causes early flowering and increases FT expression.
    FEBS Lett., 2004. 557(1-3): p. 259-64
  49. Valverde F, et al.
    Photoreceptor regulation of CONSTANS protein in photoperiodic flowering.
    Science, 2004. 303(5660): p. 1003-6
  50. Somers DE,Kim WY,Geng R
    The F-box protein ZEITLUPE confers dosage-dependent control on the circadian clock, photomorphogenesis, and flowering time.
    Plant Cell, 2004. 16(3): p. 769-82
  51. Searle I,Coupland G
    Induction of flowering by seasonal changes in photoperiod.
    EMBO J., 2004. 23(6): p. 1217-22
  52. Tseng TS,Salomé PA,McClung CR,Olszewski NE
    SPINDLY and GIGANTEA interact and act in Arabidopsis thaliana pathways involved in light responses, flowering, and rhythms in cotyledon movements.
    Plant Cell, 2004. 16(6): p. 1550-63
  53. An H, et al.
    CONSTANS acts in the phloem to regulate a systemic signal that induces photoperiodic flowering of Arabidopsis.
    Development, 2004. 131(15): p. 3615-26
  54. Ayre BG,Turgeon R
    Graft transmission of a floral stimulant derived from CONSTANS.
    Plant Physiol., 2004. 135(4): p. 2271-8
  55. Farrona S,Hurtado L,Bowman JL,Reyes JC
    The Arabidopsis thaliana SNF2 homolog AtBRM controls shoot development and flowering.
    Development, 2004. 131(20): p. 4965-75
  56. He Y, et al.
    Nitric oxide represses the Arabidopsis floral transition.
    Science, 2004. 305(5692): p. 1968-71
  57. Jeong S,Clark SE
    Photoperiod regulates flower meristem development in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Genetics, 2005. 169(2): p. 907-15
  58. Shimizu M,Ichikawa K,Aoki S
    Photoperiod-regulated expression of the PpCOL1 gene encoding a homolog of CO/COL proteins in the moss Physcomitrella patens.
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2004. 324(4): p. 1296-301
  59. Michaels SD,Himelblau E,Kim SY,Schomburg FM,Amasino RM
    Integration of flowering signals in winter-annual Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2005. 137(1): p. 149-56
  60. Moon J,Lee H,Kim M,Lee I
    Analysis of flowering pathway integrators in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2005. 46(2): p. 292-9
  61. Hecht V, et al.
    Conservation of Arabidopsis flowering genes in model legumes.
    Plant Physiol., 2005. 137(4): p. 1420-34
  62. Zobell O,Coupland G,Reiss B
    The family of CONSTANS-like genes in Physcomitrella patens.
    Plant Biol (Stuttg), 2005. 7(3): p. 266-75
  63. Fukamatsu Y, et al.
    Identification of LOV KELCH PROTEIN2 (LKP2)-interacting factors that can recruit LKP2 to nuclear bodies.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2005. 46(8): p. 1340-9
  64. Yamaguchi A,Kobayashi Y,Goto K,Abe M,Araki T
    TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF) acts as a floral pathway integrator redundantly with FT.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2005. 46(8): p. 1175-89
  65. Imaizumi T,Schultz TF,Harmon FG,Ho LA,Kay SA
    FKF1 F-box protein mediates cyclic degradation of a repressor of CONSTANS in Arabidopsis.
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