PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT5G13790.1
Common NameAGL15, MXE10.6
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Protein Properties Length: 268aa    MW: 30329 Da    PI: 8.6104
Description AGAMOUS-like 15
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT5G13790.1genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
       SRF-TF  1 krienksnrqvtfskRrngilKKAeELSvLCdaevaviifsstgklyeyss 51
                 krien   rqvtfskRr g+lKKA ELSvLCdaevavi+fs++gkl+eyss
                 79***********************************************96 PP

        K-box   5 sgksleeakaeslqqelakLkkeienLqreqRhllGedLesLslkeLqqLeqqLekslkkiRskKnellleqieelqkkekelqeenkaLrkklee 100
                  ++   +++kae+ + e++ Lk+++++Lq+++ +l+G++L++L++keLq+LeqqL ++l ++R++K++ll++q+ee++ ke++++ en++Lr++++e
                  33..4678889**********************************************************************************986 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
SMARTSM004324.6E-42160IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PROSITE profilePS5006632.646161IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
CDDcd002652.66E-44278No hitNo description
SuperFamilySSF554551.7E-32281IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PRINTSPR004047.8E-30323IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PROSITE patternPS003500357IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PfamPF003193.2E-261057IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PRINTSPR004047.8E-302338IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PRINTSPR004047.8E-303859IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PfamPF014864.8E-1975164IPR002487Transcription factor, K-box
PROSITE profilePS5129713.18380170IPR002487Transcription factor, K-box
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0010047Biological Processfruit dehiscence
GO:0010262Biological Processsomatic embryogenesis
GO:0045487Biological Processgibberellin catabolic process
GO:0045892Biological Processnegative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0045893Biological Processpositive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0048577Biological Processnegative regulation of short-day photoperiodism, flowering
GO:0060862Biological Processnegative regulation of floral organ abscission
GO:0060867Biological Processfruit abscission
GO:0071365Biological Processcellular response to auxin stimulus
GO:2000692Biological Processnegative regulation of seed maturation
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0005737Cellular Componentcytoplasm
GO:0003677Molecular FunctionDNA binding
GO:0003700Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0042803Molecular Functionprotein homodimerization activity
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0000037anatomyshoot apex
PO:0000293anatomyguard cell
PO:0009009anatomyplant embryo
PO:0009052anatomyflower pedicel
PO:0025022anatomycollective leaf structure
PO:0001078developmental stageplant embryo cotyledonary stage
PO:0004507developmental stageplant embryo bilateral stage
PO:0007611developmental stagepetal differentiation and expansion stage
PO:0007616developmental stageflowering stage
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 268 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
3D Structure ? help Back to Top
PDB ID Evalue Query Start Query End Hit Start Hit End Description
6byy_A1e-23186186MEF2 CHIMERA
6byy_B1e-23186186MEF2 CHIMERA
6byy_C1e-23186186MEF2 CHIMERA
6byy_D1e-23186186MEF2 CHIMERA
Search in ModeBase
Expression -- UniGene ? help Back to Top
UniGene ID E-value Expressed in
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
Expression AtlasAT5G13790-
Expression -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniprotDEVELOPMENTAL STAGE: During the reproductive phase, accumulates in immature buds and at the base of the floral organs, and in the receptacle, ovules, anther filaments, and stigma and style of open flowers. Accumulates before fertilization in the cytoplasm in the cells of the egg apparatus and moves into the nucleus during early stages of development following fertilization in the suspensor, embryo, and endosperm, mainly double fertilization derived tissues (at protein level). Highly expressed in developing embryos. In young seedlings, present in the shoot and root apices, lateral root primordia and throughout the vascular system. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10318690, ECO:0000269|PubMed:10662856, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15686521, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17521410, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8953767}.
UniprotTISSUE SPECIFICITY: Expressed at low levels in flowers and siliques. Also present in seedlings. Detected during embryogenesis and accumulates during early seed development (at protein level). Expressed in shoot apices and the base of leaf petioles. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10318690, ECO:0000269|PubMed:10662856, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12837945, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12949148, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15686521, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16028119, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17521410, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8953767}.
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIRAGL15 (AGAMOUS-Like 15) is a member of the MADS domain family of regulatory factors. Although AGL15 is preferentially expressed during embryogenesis, AGL15 is also expressed in leaf primordia, shoot apical meristems and young floral buds, suggesting that AGL15 may play a role during post-germinative development. Transgenic plants that ectopically express AGL15 show delays in the transition to flowering, perianth abscission and senescence and fruit and seed maturation. Role in embryogenesis and gibberellic acid catabolism. Targets B3 domain transcription factors that are key regulators of embryogenesis.
UniProtTranscription factor involved in the negative regulation of flowering, probably through the photoperiodic pathway. Acts as both an activator and a repressor of transcription. Binds DNA in a sequence-specific manner in large CArG motif 5'-CC (A/T)8 GG-3'. Participates probably in the regulation of programs active during the early stages of embryo development. Prevents premature perianth senescence and abscission, fruits development and seed desiccation. Stimulates the expression of at least DTA4, LEC2, FUS3, ABI3, AT4G38680/CSP2 and GRP2B/CSP4. Can enhance somatic embryo development in vitro. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10318690, ECO:0000269|PubMed:10662856, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12226488, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12743119, ECO:0000269|PubMed:14615187, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15084721, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15686521, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17521410, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18305206, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19269998, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19767455, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8953767}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. Regions important for the level of expression, including a region involved in expression in response to auxin, were identified. Additionally, AGL15 expression was found to respond to AGL15 accumulation amounts and to altered forms of AGL15.
    [PMID: 15686521]
  2. Flowering time is determined by the additive effect of multiple MADS domain floral repressors, with important contributions from AGL15 and AGL18.
    [PMID: 17521410]
  3. LFY and AGL15 are involved in the regulation of AtMYB17 in early inflorescence development and seed germination.
    [PMID: 19232308]
  4. Several key regulators of embryogenesis were directly expressed in response to AGL15.
    [PMID: 19767455]
  5. confirmation that At5g61590 is a directly expressed target of AGL15 and that At5g61590 is essential for AGL15's promotion of somatic embryogenesis.
    [PMID: 23457229]
  6. AGL15 and AGL18 may form a complex along with other proteins, and bind to the CArG motifs of the promoters of MIR156 to activate the MIR156 expression.
    [PMID: 25666346]
  7. PRX17, under the control of AGL15, contributes to developmental programs by playing an essential role in regulating age-dependent lignified tissue formation, including changes in cell wall properties.
    [PMID: 27513887]
  8. AGL15 negatively regulates auxin signaling in both Arabidopsis and soybean at many levels of the pathway.
    [PMID: 27794101]
Binding Motif ? help Back to Top
Motif ID Method Source Motif file
Motif logo
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
Regulation -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtINDUCTION: By auxin (2,4-D). Feedback loop leading to direct down-regulation by itself. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15686521}.
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Upstream Regulators) ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G28300 (A)
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Target Genes) ? help Back to Top
Source Target Gene (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G02400(A), AT1G71830(A), AT2G21060(R), AT2G45830(R), AT3G57390(R), AT3G61250(A), AT4G25470(R), AT4G38680(R), AT5G45890(R)
Interaction ? help Back to Top
Source Intact With
BioGRIDAT5G13790, AT1G24260, AT1G69120
IntActSearch Q38847
Phenotype -- Disruption Phenotype ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtDISRUPTION PHENOTYPE: Early flowering under short-days conditions (SD) when combined with AGL18 disruption. Decreased ability to produce somatic embryos in vitro. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17521410, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18305206}.
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT5G13790
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankATU201850.0U20185.1 Arabidopsis thaliana MADS-box protein AGL15 (AGL15) mRNA, partial cds.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_196883.10.0AGAMOUS-like 15
SwissprotQ388470.0AGL15_ARATH; Agamous-like MADS-box protein AGL15
TrEMBLA0A178U9X90.0A0A178U9X9_ARATH; AGL15
STRINGAT5G13790.10.0(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Orthologous Group ? help Back to Top
LineageOrthologous Group IDTaxa NumberGene Number
Representative plantOGRP1617761
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Perry SE,Lehti MD,Fernandez DE
    The MADS-domain protein AGAMOUS-like 15 accumulates in embryonic tissues with diverse origins.
    Plant Physiol., 1999. 120(1): p. 121-30
  2. Fernandez DE, et al.
    The embryo MADS domain factor AGL15 acts postembryonically. Inhibition of perianth senescence and abscission via constitutive expression.
    Plant Cell, 2000. 12(2): p. 183-98
  3. Alvarez-Buylla ER, et al.
    MADS-box gene evolution beyond flowers: expression in pollen, endosperm, guard cells, roots and trichomes.
    Plant J., 2000. 24(4): p. 457-66
  4. Riechmann JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
    Science, 2000. 290(5499): p. 2105-10
  5. Fang SC,Fernandez DE
    Effect of regulated overexpression of the MADS domain factor AGL15 on flower senescence and fruit maturation.
    Plant Physiol., 2002. 130(1): p. 78-89
  6. Wang H,Tang W,Zhu C,Perry SE
    A chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) approach to isolate genes regulated by AGL15, a MADS domain protein that preferentially accumulates in embryos.
    Plant J., 2002. 32(5): p. 831-43
  7. Tang W,Perry SE
    Binding site selection for the plant MADS domain protein AGL15: an in vitro and in vivo study.
    J. Biol. Chem., 2003. 278(30): p. 28154-9
  8. Parenicov√° L, et al.
    Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the complete MADS-box transcription factor family in Arabidopsis: new openings to the MADS world.
    Plant Cell, 2003. 15(7): p. 1538-51
  9. Kofuji R, et al.
    Evolution and divergence of the MADS-box gene family based on genome-wide expression analyses.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2003. 20(12): p. 1963-77
  10. Becker A,Theissen G
    The major clades of MADS-box genes and their role in the development and evolution of flowering plants.
    Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 2003. 29(3): p. 464-89
  11. Wang H,Caruso LV,Downie AB,Perry SE
    The embryo MADS domain protein AGAMOUS-Like 15 directly regulates expression of a gene encoding an enzyme involved in gibberellin metabolism.
    Plant Cell, 2004. 16(5): p. 1206-19
  12. Zhu C,Perry SE
    Control of expression and autoregulation of AGL15, a member of the MADS-box family.
    Plant J., 2005. 41(4): p. 583-94
  13. de Folter S, et al.
    Comprehensive interaction map of the Arabidopsis MADS Box transcription factors.
    Plant Cell, 2005. 17(5): p. 1424-33
  14. Lehti-Shiu MD,Adamczyk BJ,Fernandez DE
    Expression of MADS-box genes during the embryonic phase in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2005. 58(1): p. 89-107
  15. Karlova R, et al.
    Plant Cell, 2006. 18(3): p. 626-38
  16. Braybrook SA, et al.
    Genes directly regulated by LEAFY COTYLEDON2 provide insight into the control of embryo maturation and somatic embryogenesis.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2006. 103(9): p. 3468-73
  17. Popescu SC, et al.
    Differential binding of calmodulin-related proteins to their targets revealed through high-density Arabidopsis protein microarrays.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2007. 104(11): p. 4730-5
  18. Adamczyk BJ,Lehti-Shiu MD,Fernandez DE
    The MADS domain factors AGL15 and AGL18 act redundantly as repressors of the floral transition in Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2007. 50(6): p. 1007-19
  19. Kwaaitaal MA,de Vries SC
    The SERK1 gene is expressed in procambium and immature vascular cells.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2007. 58(11): p. 2887-96
  20. Hill K,Wang H,Perry SE
    A transcriptional repression motif in the MADS factor AGL15 is involved in recruitment of histone deacetylase complex components.
    Plant J., 2008. 53(1): p. 172-85
  21. Thakare D,Tang W,Hill K,Perry SE
    The MADS-domain transcriptional regulator AGAMOUS-LIKE15 promotes somatic embryo development in Arabidopsis and soybean.
    Plant Physiol., 2008. 146(4): p. 1663-72
  22. Zhang Y,Cao G,Qu LJ,Gu H
    Characterization of Arabidopsis MYB transcription factor gene AtMYB17 and its possible regulation by LEAFY and AGL15.
    J Genet Genomics, 2009. 36(2): p. 99-107
  23. Nakaminami K, et al.
    Arabidopsis cold shock domain proteins: relationships to floral and silique development.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2009. 60(3): p. 1047-62
  24. Zheng Y,Ren N,Wang H,Stromberg AJ,Perry SE
    Global identification of targets of the Arabidopsis MADS domain protein AGAMOUS-Like15.
    Plant Cell, 2009. 21(9): p. 2563-77
  25. Causier B,Ashworth M,Guo W,Davies B
    The TOPLESS interactome: a framework for gene repression in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2012. 158(1): p. 423-38
  26. Veerappan V, et al.
    A novel HSI2 mutation in Arabidopsis affects the PHD-like domain and leads to derepression of seed-specific gene expression.
    Planta, 2012. 236(1): p. 1-17
  27. Zheng Q,Zheng Y,Perry SE
    AGAMOUS-Like15 promotes somatic embryogenesis in Arabidopsis and soybean in part by the control of ethylene biosynthesis and response.
    Plant Physiol., 2013. 161(4): p. 2113-27
  28. Zheng Q,Zheng Y,Perry SE
    Decreased GmAGL15 expression and reduced ethylene synthesis may contribute to reduced somatic embryogenesis in a poorly embryogenic cultivar of Glycine max.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2014.
  29. Fernandez DE, et al.
    The MADS-Domain Factors AGAMOUS-LIKE15 and AGAMOUS-LIKE18, along with SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE and AGAMOUS-LIKE24, Are Necessary to Block Floral Gene Expression during the Vegetative Phase.
    Plant Physiol., 2014. 165(4): p. 1591-1603
  30. Serivichyaswat P, et al.
    Expression of the floral repressor miRNA156 is positively regulated by the AGAMOUS-like proteins AGL15 and AGL18.
    Mol. Cells, 2015. 38(3): p. 259-66
  31. Patharkar OR,Walker JC
    Floral organ abscission is regulated by a positive feedback loop.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2015. 112(9): p. 2906-11
  32. Jin J, et al.
    An Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulatory Map Reveals Distinct Functional and Evolutionary Features of Novel Transcription Factors.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2015. 32(7): p. 1767-73
  33. Perry SE,Zheng Q,Zheng Y
    Transcriptome analysis indicates that GmAGAMOUS-Like 15 may enhance somatic embryogenesis by promoting a dedifferentiated state.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2016. 11(7): p. e1197463
  34. Cosio C, et al.
    The class III peroxidase PRX17 is a direct target of the MADS-box transcription factor AGAMOUS-LIKE15 (AGL15) and participates in lignified tissue formation.
    New Phytol., 2017. 213(1): p. 250-263
  35. Zheng Q,Zheng Y,Ji H,Burnie W,Perry SE
    Gene Regulation by the AGL15 Transcription Factor Reveals Hormone Interactions in Somatic Embryogenesis.
    Plant Physiol., 2016. 172(4): p. 2374-2387
  36. Chen N,Veerappan V,Abdelmageed H,Kang M,Allen RD
    HSI2/VAL1 Silences AGL15 to Regulate the Developmental Transition from Seed Maturation to Vegetative Growth in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2018. 30(3): p. 600-619
  37. Rounsley SD,Ditta GS,Yanofsky MF
    Diverse roles for MADS box genes in Arabidopsis development.
    Plant Cell, 1995. 7(8): p. 1259-69
  38. Heck GR,Perry SE,Nichols KW,Fernandez DE
    AGL15, a MADS domain protein expressed in developing embryos.
    Plant Cell, 1995. 7(8): p. 1271-82
  39. Perry SE,Nichols KW,Fernandez DE
    The MADS domain protein AGL15 localizes to the nucleus during early stages of seed development.
    Plant Cell, 1996. 8(11): p. 1977-89
  40. Carmona MJ,Ortega N,Garcia-Maroto F
    Isolation and molecular characterization of a new vegetative MADS-box gene from Solanum tuberosum L.
    Planta, 1998. 207(2): p. 181-8