PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT4G36730.1
Common NameAtGBF1, BZIP41, C7A10_630, GBF1
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Family bZIP
Protein Properties Length: 315aa    MW: 33932.3 Da    PI: 6.3772
Description G-box binding factor 1
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT4G36730.1genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
       bZIP_1   1 ekelkrerrkqkNReAArrsRqRKkaeieeLeekvkeLeaeNkaLkkeleelkkevaklksev 63 
                  e+elkr++rkq+NRe+ArrsR+RK+ae+e+L+++v++L++eN++L++el++l+ e++klkse+
                  89***********************************************************98 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
PfamPF077774.7E-30194IPR012900G-box binding protein, multifunctional mosaic region
Gene3DG3DSA: hitNo description
PfamPF001701.1E-22220282IPR004827Basic-leucine zipper domain
SMARTSM003383.8E-23220284IPR004827Basic-leucine zipper domain
PROSITE profilePS5021713.817222285IPR004827Basic-leucine zipper domain
SuperFamilySSF579594.22E-12223280No hitNo description
CDDcd147025.54E-24225276No hitNo description
PROSITE patternPS000360227242IPR004827Basic-leucine zipper domain
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0006355Biological Processregulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0010310Biological Processregulation of hydrogen peroxide metabolic process
GO:0010629Biological Processnegative regulation of gene expression
GO:0090342Biological Processregulation of cell aging
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0005737Cellular Componentcytoplasm
GO:0003700Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0043565Molecular Functionsequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0044212Molecular Functiontranscription regulatory region DNA binding
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0000013anatomycauline leaf
PO:0000037anatomyshoot apex
PO:0000230anatomyinflorescence meristem
PO:0000293anatomyguard cell
PO:0008019anatomyleaf lamina base
PO:0009006anatomyshoot system
PO:0009009anatomyplant embryo
PO:0009025anatomyvascular leaf
PO:0009052anatomyflower pedicel
PO:0020137anatomyleaf apex
PO:0025022anatomycollective leaf structure
PO:0001054developmental stagevascular leaf senescent stage
PO:0001078developmental stageplant embryo cotyledonary stage
PO:0001081developmental stagemature plant embryo stage
PO:0001185developmental stageplant embryo globular stage
PO:0004507developmental stageplant embryo bilateral stage
PO:0007064developmental stageLP.12 twelve leaves visible stage
PO:0007095developmental stageLP.08 eight leaves visible stage
PO:0007098developmental stageLP.02 two leaves visible stage
PO:0007103developmental stageLP.10 ten leaves visible stage
PO:0007115developmental stageLP.04 four leaves visible stage
PO:0007123developmental stageLP.06 six leaves visible stage
PO:0007611developmental stagepetal differentiation and expansion stage
PO:0007616developmental stageflowering stage
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 315 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
Nucleic Localization Signal ? help Back to Top
No. Start End Sequence
Expression -- UniGene ? help Back to Top
UniGene ID E-value Expressed in
At.620.0flower| leaf| root| seed
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
Expression AtlasAT4G36730-
Expression -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniprotTISSUE SPECIFICITY: Found in both light and dark grown leaves.
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIRmember of a gene family encoding basic leucine zipper proteins (GBFs) which bind the G-box
UniProtBinds to the G-box motif (5'-CCACGTGG-3') of the rbcS-1A gene promoter (PubMed:1373374). G-box and G-box-like motifs are cis-acting elements defined in promoters of certain plant genes which are regulated by such diverse stimuli as light-induction or hormone control. Binds to the G-box motif 5'-CACGTG-3' of LHCB2.4 (At3g27690) promoter. May act as transcriptional activator in light-regulated expression of LHCB2.4. Probably binds DNA as monomer. DNA-binding activity is redox-dependent (PubMed:22718771). {ECO:0000269|PubMed:1373374, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22718771}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. GBF1, a transcription factor of blue light signaling in Arabidopsis, is degraded in the dark by a proteasome-mediated pathway independent of COP1 and SPA1
    [PMID: 18930926]
  2. In Arabidopsis, GBF1-related exchange factors for the ARF GTPases (ARF GEFs) GNOM and GNL2 play essential roles in polar tip growth of root hairs and pollen, respectively.
    [PMID: 22138577]
  3. the functional interrelations of GBF1 with HY5 and HYH in Arabidopsis seedling development.
    [PMID: 22692212]
  4. Genetic interactions of HY1 and GBF1 in seedling photomorphogenesis.
    [PMID: 22766018]
  5. The DNA binding activity of GBF1 is modulated by heterodimeriation with HY5 and HYH.
    [PMID: 24157608]
  6. GBF1 is a transcriptional repressor of the AtCathB3 gene and affects germination kinetics of A. thaliana seeds. As AtCathB3 is also expressed during post-germination in cotyledons, a role for the AtCathB3-like protease in reserve mobilization is inferred.
    [PMID: 24600022]
  7. This study reveals that MYC2 and GBF1 colocalize and physically interact in the nucleus. This interaction requires the N-terminal domain of each protein.
    [PMID: 26047210]
Binding Motif ? help Back to Top
Motif ID Method Source Motif file
Motif logo
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Target Genes) ? help Back to Top
Source Target Gene (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G29930(A), AT4G10040(A), AT4G35090(R)
Interaction ? help Back to Top
Source Intact With
BioGRIDAT5G11260, AT5G44190, AT1G32640
IntActSearch P42774
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT4G36730
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankAJ8432570.0AJ843257.1 Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for Z-box binding factor 2 protein (ZBF2 gene).
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_195391.10.0G-box binding factor 1
SwissprotP427740.0GBF1_ARATH; G-box-binding factor 1
TrEMBLQ5K1L60.0Q5K1L6_ARATH; Z-box binding factor 2 protein
STRINGAT4G36730.10.0(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Orthologous Group ? help Back to Top
LineageOrthologous Group IDTaxa NumberGene Number
Representative plantOGRP7001767
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Riechmann JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
    Science, 2000. 290(5499): p. 2105-10
  2. Tamai H,Iwabuchi M,Meshi T
    Arabidopsis GARP transcriptional activators interact with the Pro-rich activation domain shared by G-box-binding bZIP factors.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2002. 43(1): p. 99-107
  3. Jakoby M, et al.
    bZIP transcription factors in Arabidopsis.
    Trends Plant Sci., 2002. 7(3): p. 106-11
  4. Schindler U,Menkens AE,Beckmann H,Ecker JR,Cashmore AR
    Heterodimerization between light-regulated and ubiquitously expressed Arabidopsis GBF bZIP proteins.
    EMBO J., 1992. 11(4): p. 1261-73
  5. Schindler U,Beckmann H,Cashmore AR
    TGA1 and G-box binding factors: two distinct classes of Arabidopsis leucine zipper proteins compete for the G-box-like element TGACGTGG.
    Plant Cell, 1992. 4(10): p. 1309-19
  6. Yamada K, et al.
    Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome.
    Science, 2003. 302(5646): p. 842-6
  7. Klimczak LJ,Schindler U,Cashmore AR
    DNA binding activity of the Arabidopsis G-box binding factor GBF1 is stimulated by phosphorylation by casein kinase II from broccoli.
    Plant Cell, 1992. 4(1): p. 87-98
  8. Schindler U,Terzaghi W,Beckmann H,Kadesch T,Cashmore AR
    DNA binding site preferences and transcriptional activation properties of the Arabidopsis transcription factor GBF1.
    EMBO J., 1992. 11(4): p. 1275-89
  9. Sehnke PC,Laughner BJ,Lyerly Linebarger CR,Gurley WB,Ferl RJ
    Identification and characterization of GIP1, an Arabidopsis thaliana protein that enhances the DNA binding affinity and reduces the oligomeric state of G-box binding factors.
    Cell Res., 2005. 15(8): p. 567-75
  10. Mallappa C,Yadav V,Negi P,Chattopadhyay S
    A basic leucine zipper transcription factor, G-box-binding factor 1, regulates blue light-mediated photomorphogenic growth in Arabidopsis.
    J. Biol. Chem., 2006. 281(31): p. 22190-9
  11. Popescu SC, et al.
    Differential binding of calmodulin-related proteins to their targets revealed through high-density Arabidopsis protein microarrays.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2007. 104(11): p. 4730-5
  12. Shen H,Cao K,Wang X
    AtbZIP16 and AtbZIP68, two new members of GBFs, can interact with other G group bZIPs in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    BMB Rep, 2008. 41(2): p. 132-8
  13. Mallappa C,Singh A,Ram H,Chattopadhyay S
    GBF1, a transcription factor of blue light signaling in Arabidopsis, is degraded in the dark by a proteasome-mediated pathway independent of COP1 and SPA1.
    J. Biol. Chem., 2008. 283(51): p. 35772-82
  14. Welchen E, et al.
    A segment containing a G-box and an ACGT motif confers differential expression characteristics and responses to the Arabidopsis Cytc-2 gene, encoding an isoform of cytochrome c.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2009. 60(3): p. 829-45
  15. Nozawa A, et al.
    Construction of a protein library of Arabidopsis transcription factors using a wheat cell-free protein production system and its application for DNA binding analysis.
    Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 2009. 73(7): p. 1661-4
  16. Smykowski A,Zimmermann P,Zentgraf U
    G-Box binding factor1 reduces CATALASE2 expression and regulates the onset of leaf senescence in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2010. 153(3): p. 1321-31
  17. Gaudinier A, et al.
    Enhanced Y1H assays for Arabidopsis.
    Nat. Methods, 2011. 8(12): p. 1053-5
  18. Richter S, et al.
    Polarized cell growth in Arabidopsis requires endosomal recycling mediated by GBF1-related ARF exchange factors.
    Nat. Cell Biol., 2012. 14(1): p. 80-6
  19. Singh A,Ram H,Abbas N,Chattopadhyay S
    Molecular interactions of GBF1 with HY5 and HYH proteins during light-mediated seedling development in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    J. Biol. Chem., 2012. 287(31): p. 25995-6009
  20. Shaikhali J, et al.
    Redox-mediated mechanisms regulate DNA binding activity of the G-group of basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors in Arabidopsis.
    J. Biol. Chem., 2012. 287(33): p. 27510-25
  21. Prasad VB,Gupta N,Nandi A,Chattopadhyay S
    HY1 genetically interacts with GBF1 and regulates the activity of the Z-box containing promoters in light signaling pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Mech. Dev., 2012 Sep-Dec. 129(9-12): p. 298-307
  22. Ram H,Chattopadhyay S
    Molecular interaction of bZIP domains of GBF1, HY5 and HYH in Arabidopsis seedling development.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2013. 8(1): p. e22703
  23. Gangappa SN,Srivastava AK,Maurya JP,Ram H,Chattopadhyay S
    Z-box binding transcription factors (ZBFs): a new class of transcription factors in Arabidopsis seedling development.
    Mol Plant, 2013. 6(6): p. 1758-68
  24. Ram H,Priya P,Jain M,Chattopadhyay S
    Genome-wide DNA binding of GBF1 is modulated by its heterodimerizing protein partners, HY5 and HYH.
    Mol Plant, 2014. 7(2): p. 448-51
  25. Ding Y, et al.
    Four distinct types of dehydration stress memory genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    BMC Plant Biol., 2013. 13: p. 229
  26. Iglesias-Fern
    The AtCathB3 gene, encoding a cathepsin B-like protease, is expressed during germination of Arabidopsis thaliana and transcriptionally repressed by the basic leucine zipper protein GBF1.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2014. 65(8): p. 2009-21
  27. Shaikhali J
    GIP1 protein is a novel cofactor that regulates DNA-binding affinity of redox-regulated members of bZIP transcription factors involved in the early stages of Arabidopsis development.
    Protoplasma, 2015. 252(3): p. 867-83
  28. Karumuri S,Bandopadhyay R
    In silico analysis of the structure and interaction of COP1 protein of Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Indian J. Biochem. Biophys., 2014. 51(5): p. 343-9
  29. Jin J, et al.
    An Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulatory Map Reveals Distinct Functional and Evolutionary Features of Novel Transcription Factors.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2015. 32(7): p. 1767-73
  30. Maurya JP,Sethi V,Gangappa SN,Gupta N,Chattopadhyay S
    Interaction of MYC2 and GBF1 results in functional antagonism in blue light-mediated Arabidopsis seedling development.
    Plant J., 2015. 83(3): p. 439-50
  31. Smykowski A,Zimmermann P,Zentgraf U
    CORRECTION. G-Box Binding Factor1 Reduces CATALASE2 Expression and Regulates the Onset of Leaf Senescence in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2016. 170(2): p. 1164-7
  32. Smykowski A,Fischer SM,Zentgraf U
    Phosphorylation Affects DNA-Binding of the Senescence-Regulating bZIP Transcription Factor GBF1.
    Plants (Basel), 2015. 4(3): p. 691-709
  33. Giri MK, et al.
    GBF1 differentially regulates CAT2 and PAD4 transcription to promote pathogen defense in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant J., 2017. 91(5): p. 802-815
  34. Klimczak LJ, et al.
    Reconstitution of Arabidopsis casein kinase II from recombinant subunits and phosphorylation of transcription factor GBF1.
    Plant Cell, 1995. 7(1): p. 105-15
  35. Terzaghi WB,Bertekap RL,Cashmore AR
    Intracellular localization of GBF proteins and blue light-induced import of GBF2 fusion proteins into the nucleus of cultured Arabidopsis and soybean cells.
    Plant J., 1997. 11(5): p. 967-82