PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT3G54320.3
Common NameASML1, ATWRI1, T12E18.10, T12E18.20, WRI, WRI1
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Family AP2
Protein Properties Length: 430aa    MW: 48436.4 Da    PI: 4.9605
Description AP2 family protein
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT3G54320.3genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
          AP2   1 55 
                  s y+GV++++++gr++A+++d  s+n    k+ k+++lg ++++e Aa  ++ a++k++g
                  57*******************777788866447*************************98 PP

          AP2   1 sgykGVrwdkkrgrWvAeIrd.psengkrkrfslgkfgtaeeAakaaiaarkklege 56 
                  s+y+GV +++ +grW+A+I   +   g +k+ +lg++ t eeAa+a++ a+ +++g+
                  89****99**********99966...3.6*************************995 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
SuperFamilySSF541712.22E-1664132IPR016177DNA-binding domain
PfamPF008472.4E-1264123IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
CDDcd000184.18E-1964132No hitNo description
SMARTSM003809.5E-2565137IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
PROSITE profilePS5103220.42965131IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
Gene3DG3DSA:3.30.730.101.6E-1565132IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
PRINTSPR003672.7E-66677IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
CDDcd000188.07E-16166227No hitNo description
PfamPF008473.6E-12166217IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
SuperFamilySSF541715.69E-18166227IPR016177DNA-binding domain
SMARTSM003806.7E-25167231IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
PROSITE profilePS5103218.373167225IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
Gene3DG3DSA:3.30.730.103.3E-18167225IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
PRINTSPR003672.7E-6207227IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0006110Biological Processregulation of glycolytic process
GO:0006355Biological Processregulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0009744Biological Processresponse to sucrose
GO:0009873Biological Processethylene-activated signaling pathway
GO:0019432Biological Processtriglyceride biosynthetic process
GO:1901959Biological Processpositive regulation of cutin biosynthetic process
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0003677Molecular FunctionDNA binding
GO:0003700Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0000013anatomycauline leaf
PO:0000037anatomyshoot apex
PO:0000084anatomyplant sperm cell
PO:0000230anatomyinflorescence meristem
PO:0000293anatomyguard cell
PO:0008019anatomyleaf lamina base
PO:0009006anatomyshoot system
PO:0009009anatomyplant embryo
PO:0009025anatomyvascular leaf
PO:0009052anatomyflower pedicel
PO:0020137anatomyleaf apex
PO:0025022anatomycollective leaf structure
PO:0001054developmental stagevascular leaf senescent stage
PO:0001078developmental stageplant embryo cotyledonary stage
PO:0001081developmental stagemature plant embryo stage
PO:0001170developmental stageseed development stage
PO:0001185developmental stageplant embryo globular stage
PO:0004507developmental stageplant embryo bilateral stage
PO:0007064developmental stageLP.12 twelve leaves visible stage
PO:0007095developmental stageLP.08 eight leaves visible stage
PO:0007098developmental stageLP.02 two leaves visible stage
PO:0007103developmental stageLP.10 ten leaves visible stage
PO:0007115developmental stageLP.04 four leaves visible stage
PO:0007123developmental stageLP.06 six leaves visible stage
PO:0007611developmental stagepetal differentiation and expansion stage
PO:0007616developmental stageflowering stage
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 430 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
Expression -- UniGene ? help Back to Top
UniGene ID E-value Expressed in
At.351160.0flower| seed
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
Expression AtlasAT3G54320-
Expression -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniprotTISSUE SPECIFICITY: Mostly expressed in siliques, especially in seeds. Also detected in roots and flowers, and, to a lower extent, in leaves stems and seedlings. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15500472, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15753106}.
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIRWRINKLED1 encodes transcription factor of the AP2/ERWEBP class. Protein has two plant-specific (AP2/EREB) DNA-binding domains and is involved in the control of storage compound biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Mutants have wrinkled seed phenotype, due to a defect in the incorporation of sucrose and glucose into triacylglycerols. Transgenic sGsL plants (21-day-old) grown on 6% sucrose for 24 hours had 2-fold increase in levels of expressions (sGsL line carries a single copy of T-DNA containing the Spomin::GUS-Spomin::LUC dual reporter genes in the upper arm of chromosome 5 of ecotype Col-0. The sporamin .minimal. promoter directs sugar-inducible expression of the LUC and GUS reporters in leaves). Regulation by LEC2 promotes fatty acid accumulation during seed maturation.
UniProtMay be involved in the regulation of gene expression by stress factors and by components of stress signal transduction pathways (By similarity). Transcriptional activator involved in the activation of a subset of sugar-responsive genes and the control of carbon flow from sucrose import to oil accumulation in developing seeds. Binds to the GCC-box pathogenesis-related promoter element. Promotes sugar uptake and seed oil accumulation by glycolysis. Required for embryo development, seed germination and, indirectly, for seedling establishment. Negative regulator of the ABA-mediated germination inhibition. {ECO:0000250, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12084821, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15500472, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15753106, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16553903, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16632590, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9733529}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. The putative AP2/EREBP transcription factor WRINKLED1 (WRI1) is involved in the regulation of seed storage metabolism in Arabidopsis. [WRI1]
    [PMID: 15500472]
  2. ASML1/WRI1 is a transcriptional activator involved in the activation of a subset of sugar-responsive genes and the control of carbon flow from sucrose import to oil accumulation in developing seeds [ASML1][WRI1] [WRINKLED1]
    [PMID: 15753106]
  3. WRI1 is a target of LEAFY COTYLEDON2 and is necessary for the regulatory action on fatty acid metabolism.
    [PMID: 17419836]
  4. WRI1 promotes the flow of carbon to oil during seed maturation by directly activating genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and controlling genes for assembly and storage of triacylglycerol.
    [PMID: 19594710]
  5. WRI1 is able to regulate in planta the activity of the BCCP2 and PKp-beta1 promoters to enhance the transcription level of glycolytic and fatty acid biosynthetic genes.
    [PMID: 19719479]
  6. directly controls AtGLB1 expression
    [PMID: 21070409]
  7. WRI1 activates fatty acid biosynthesis in seeds for triacylglycerol production. WRI1, WRI3 and WRI4 are required in floral tissues to provide acyl chains for cutin synthesis and prevent adherence of these developing organs and subsequent semisterility.
    [PMID: 23243127]
  8. Data show that CUL3 and BPM proteins assemble in planta with WRI1.
    [PMID: 23792371]
  9. the structure and function of the WRI1 plant transcription factor, was investigated.
    [PMID: 23922666]
  10. A C-terminal intrinsically disordered region of WRINKLED1 is important for protein stability.WRINKLED1 plays role in oil accumulation.
    [PMID: 26305482]
  11. WRI1 and WRI1-regulated genes involved in fatty acid synthesis were up-regulated, providing for a corresponding increase in the rate of fatty acid synthesis.
    [PMID: 27208047]
  12. MED15 is a target of WRI1.
    [PMID: 27246098]
  13. The present study describes a novel metabolic engineering ploy involving the constitutive down-regulation of endogenous ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (BjAGPase) enzyme and the seed-specific expression of WRINKLED1 transcription factor (AtWRI1) from Arabidopsis thaliana in Indian mustard.
    [PMID: 27314514]
  14. WRINKLED1 transcription factor role in the auxin homeostasis in roots
    [PMID: 28981783]
  15. This study identifies the first two regulatory genes, WRI1 and DGAT1, that control the synthesis of all tocochromanol forms in seeds, and shows the existence of a metabolic trade-off between lipid and tocochromanol metabolisms.
    [PMID: 29105089]
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
Regulation -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtINDUCTION: Transiantly in leaves by sucrose, but not by abscisic acid (ABA). {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15753106}.
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Upstream Regulators) ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G21970 (A), AT1G28300 (A)
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Target Genes) ? help Back to Top
Source Target Gene (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT2G40170(R), AT2G43360(A), AT3G22960(A), AT3G24650(R), AT5G15530(A), AT5G49190(A), AT5G52920(A)
Regulation -- Hormone ? help Back to Top
Source Hormone
AHDabscisic acid
Interaction ? help Back to Top
Source Intact With
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT3G54320
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankAY2540380.0AY254038.2 Arabidopsis thaliana WRINKLED1 (WRI1) mRNA, complete cds.
GenBankAY8852450.0AY885245.1 Arabidopsis thaliana activator of sporamin LUC 1 (ASL1) mRNA, complete cds.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_001030857.10.0Integrase-type DNA-binding superfamily protein
SwissprotQ6X5Y60.0WRI1_ARATH; Ethylene-responsive transcription factor WRI1
TrEMBLA0A1I9LLF60.0A0A1I9LLF6_ARATH; Integrase-type DNA-binding superfamily protein
STRINGAT3G54320.10.0(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Krizek BA,Prost V,Macias A
    AINTEGUMENTA promotes petal identity and acts as a negative regulator of AGAMOUS.
    Plant Cell, 2000. 12(8): p. 1357-66
  2. Riechmann JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
    Science, 2000. 290(5499): p. 2105-10
  3. Ruuska SA,Girke T,Benning C,Ohlrogge JB
    Contrapuntal networks of gene expression during Arabidopsis seed filling.
    Plant Cell, 2002. 14(6): p. 1191-206
  4. Cernac A,Benning C
    WRINKLED1 encodes an AP2/EREB domain protein involved in the control of storage compound biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2004. 40(4): p. 575-85
  5. Masaki T, et al.
    ACTIVATOR of Spomin::LUC1/WRINKLED1 of Arabidopsis thaliana transactivates sugar-inducible promoters.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2005. 46(4): p. 547-56
  6. Nakano T,Suzuki K,Fujimura T,Shinshi H
    Genome-wide analysis of the ERF gene family in Arabidopsis and rice.
    Plant Physiol., 2006. 140(2): p. 411-32
  7. Baud S,Graham IA
    A spatiotemporal analysis of enzymatic activities associated with carbon metabolism in wild-type and mutant embryos of Arabidopsis using in situ histochemistry.
    Plant J., 2006. 46(1): p. 155-69
  8. Cernac A,Andre C,Hoffmann-Benning S,Benning C
    WRI1 is required for seed germination and seedling establishment.
    Plant Physiol., 2006. 141(2): p. 745-57
  9. Baud S, et al.
    WRINKLED1 specifies the regulatory action of LEAFY COTYLEDON2 towards fatty acid metabolism during seed maturation in Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2007. 50(5): p. 825-38
  10. Baud S, et al.
    Function of plastidial pyruvate kinases in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant J., 2007. 52(3): p. 405-19
  11. Santos-Mendoza M, et al.
    Deciphering gene regulatory networks that control seed development and maturation in Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2008. 54(4): p. 608-20
  12. Mu J, et al.
    LEAFY COTYLEDON1 is a key regulator of fatty acid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2008. 148(2): p. 1042-54
  13. Baud S,Lepiniec L
    Regulation of de novo fatty acid synthesis in maturing oilseeds of Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol. Biochem., 2009. 47(6): p. 448-55
  14. Chen M, et al.
    System analysis of an Arabidopsis mutant altered in de novo fatty acid synthesis reveals diverse changes in seed composition and metabolism.
    Plant Physiol., 2009. 150(1): p. 27-41
  15. Huang Y, et al.
    Probing the endosperm gene expression landscape in Brassica napus.
    BMC Genomics, 2009. 10: p. 256
  16. Maeo K, et al.
    An AP2-type transcription factor, WRINKLED1, of Arabidopsis thaliana binds to the AW-box sequence conserved among proximal upstream regions of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis.
    Plant J., 2009. 60(3): p. 476-87
  17. He YQ,Wu Y
    Oil body biogenesis during Brassica napus embryogenesis.
    J Integr Plant Biol, 2009. 51(8): p. 792-9
  18. Baud S,Wuillème S,To A,Rochat C,Lepiniec L
    Role of WRINKLED1 in the transcriptional regulation of glycolytic and fatty acid biosynthetic genes in Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2009. 60(6): p. 933-47
  19. Lonien J,Schwender J
    Analysis of metabolic flux phenotypes for two Arabidopsis mutants with severe impairment in seed storage lipid synthesis.
    Plant Physiol., 2009. 151(3): p. 1617-34
  20. Liu J, et al.
    Increasing seed mass and oil content in transgenic Arabidopsis by the overexpression of wri1-like gene from Brassica napus.
    Plant Physiol. Biochem., 2010. 48(1): p. 9-15
  21. Li J,Yu M,Geng LL,Zhao J
    The fasciclin-like arabinogalactan protein gene, FLA3, is involved in microspore development of Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2010. 64(3): p. 482-97
  22. Baud S, et al.
    PII is induced by WRINKLED1 and fine-tunes fatty acid composition in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant J., 2010. 64(2): p. 291-303
  23. Pouvreau B, et al.
    Duplicate maize Wrinkled1 transcription factors activate target genes involved in seed oil biosynthesis.
    Plant Physiol., 2011. 156(2): p. 674-86
  24. Moreno-P
    Reduced expression of FatA thioesterases in Arabidopsis affects the oil content and fatty acid composition of the seeds.
    Planta, 2012. 235(3): p. 629-39
  25. Durrett TP,Weise SE,Benning C
    Increasing the energy density of vegetative tissues by diverting carbon from starch to oil biosynthesis in transgenic Arabidopsis.
    Plant Biotechnol. J., 2011. 9(8): p. 874-83
  26. Andriotis VM, et al.
    Altered starch turnover in the maternal plant has major effects on Arabidopsis fruit growth and seed composition.
    Plant Physiol., 2012. 160(3): p. 1175-86
  27. To A, et al.
    WRINKLED transcription factors orchestrate tissue-specific regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2012. 24(12): p. 5007-23
  28. Li-Beisson Y, et al.
    Acyl-lipid metabolism.
    Arabidopsis Book, 2013. 11: p. e0161
  29. Fukuda N,Ikawa Y,Aoyagi T,Kozaki A
    Expression of the genes coding for plastidic acetyl-CoA carboxylase subunits is regulated by a location-sensitive transcription factor binding site.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2013. 82(4-5): p. 473-83
  30. Chen L, et al.
    Arabidopsis BPM proteins function as substrate adaptors to a cullin3-based E3 ligase to affect fatty acid metabolism in plants.
    Plant Cell, 2013. 25(6): p. 2253-64
  31. Ma W, et al.
    Wrinkled1, a ubiquitous regulator in oil accumulating tissues from Arabidopsis embryos to oil palm mesocarp.
    PLoS ONE, 2013. 8(7): p. e68887
  32. Kim HU, et al.
    Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues.
    FEBS Open Bio, 2013. 4: p. 25-32
  33. Wu XL,Liu ZH,Hu ZH,Huang RZ
    BnWRI1 coordinates fatty acid biosynthesis and photosynthesis pathways during oil accumulation in rapeseed.
    J Integr Plant Biol, 2014. 56(6): p. 582-93
  34. Shigematsu H, et al.
    Structural characterization of the mechanosensitive channel candidate MCA2 from Arabidopsis thaliana.
    PLoS ONE, 2014. 9(1): p. e87724
  35. Jin J, et al.
    An Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulatory Map Reveals Distinct Functional and Evolutionary Features of Novel Transcription Factors.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2015. 32(7): p. 1767-73
  36. Kim HU, et al.
    Senescence-inducible LEC2 enhances triacylglycerol accumulation in leaves without negatively affecting plant growth.
    Plant Biotechnol. J., 2015. 13(9): p. 1346-59
  37. Grimberg Å,Carlsson AS,Marttila S,Bhalerao R,Hofvander P
    Transcriptional transitions in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves upon induction of oil synthesis by WRINKLED1 homologs from diverse species and tissues.
    BMC Plant Biol., 2015. 15: p. 192
  38. Kilaru A, et al.
    Oil biosynthesis in a basal angiosperm: transcriptome analysis of Persea Americana mesocarp.
    BMC Plant Biol., 2015. 15: p. 203
  39. Ma W, et al.
    Deletion of a C-terminal intrinsically disordered region of WRINKLED1 affects its stability and enhances oil accumulation in Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2015. 83(5): p. 864-74
  40. Kanai M,Mano S,Kondo M,Hayashi M,Nishimura M
    Extension of oil biosynthesis during the mid-phase of seed development enhances oil content in Arabidopsis seeds.
    Plant Biotechnol. J., 2016. 14(5): p. 1241-50
  41. Li Q, et al.
    Wrinkled1 Accelerates Flowering and Regulates Lipid Homeostasis between Oil Accumulation and Membrane Lipid Anabolism in Brassica napus.
    Front Plant Sci, 2015. 6: p. 1015
  42. Hofvander P, et al.
    Potato tuber expression of Arabidopsis WRINKLED1 increase triacylglycerol and membrane lipids while affecting central carbohydrate metabolism.
    Plant Biotechnol. J., 2016. 14(9): p. 1883-98
  43. Shen SL, et al.
    CitAP2.10 activation of the terpene synthase CsTPS1 is associated with the synthesis of (+)-valencene in 'Newhall' orange.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2016. 67(14): p. 4105-15
  44. Adhikari ND,Bates PD,Browse J
    WRINKLED1 Rescues Feedback Inhibition of Fatty Acid Synthesis in Hydroxylase-Expressing Seeds.
    Plant Physiol., 2016. 171(1): p. 179-91
  45. Kim MJ,Jang IC,Chua NH
    The Mediator Complex MED15 Subunit Mediates Activation of Downstream Lipid-Related Genes by the WRINKLED1 Transcription Factor.
    Plant Physiol., 2016. 171(3): p. 1951-64
  46. Bhattacharya S,Das N,Maiti MK
    Cumulative effect of heterologous AtWRI1 gene expression and endogenous BjAGPase gene silencing increases seed lipid content in Indian mustard Brassica juncea.
    Plant Physiol. Biochem., 2016. 107: p. 204-213
  47. Ma W, et al.
    14-3-3 protein mediates plant seed oil biosynthesis through interaction with AtWRI1.
    Plant J., 2016. 88(2): p. 228-235
  48. Li D, et al.
    MYB89 Transcription Factor Represses Seed Oil Accumulation.
    Plant Physiol., 2017. 173(2): p. 1211-1225
  49. Ivarson E, et al.
    Effects of Overexpression of WRI1 and Hemoglobin Genes on the Seed Oil Content of Lepidium campestre.
    Front Plant Sci, 2016. 7: p. 2032
  50. An D, et al.
    Expression of Camelina WRINKLED1 Isoforms Rescue the Seed Phenotype of the Arabidopsis wri1 Mutant and Increase the Triacylglycerol Content in Tobacco Leaves.
    Front Plant Sci, 2017. 8: p. 34
  51. Zhai Z,Liu H,Shanklin J
    Phosphorylation of WRINKLED1 by KIN10 Results in Its Proteasomal Degradation, Providing a Link between Energy Homeostasis and Lipid Biosynthesis.
    Plant Cell, 2017. 29(4): p. 871-889
  52. Jin J, et al.
    Transcriptome and functional analysis reveals hybrid vigor for oil biosynthesis in oil palm.
    Sci Rep, 2017. 7(1): p. 439
  53. Kong Q, et al.
    The Arabidopsis WRINKLED1 transcription factor affects auxin homeostasis in roots.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2017. 68(16): p. 4627-4634
  54. Kang NK, et al.
    Increased lipid production by heterologous expression of AtWRI1 transcription factor in Nannochloropsis salina.
    Biotechnol Biofuels, 2017. 10: p. 231
  55. Pellaud S, et al.
    WRINKLED1 and ACYL-COA:DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE1 regulate tocochromanol metabolism in Arabidopsis.
    New Phytol., 2018. 217(1): p. 245-260
  56. Hanano A,Almousally I,Shaban M,Murphy DJ
    Arabidopsis plants exposed to dioxin result in a WRINKLED seed phenotype due to 20S proteasomal degradation of WRI1.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2018. 69(7): p. 1781-1794
  57. Focks N,Benning C
    wrinkled1: A novel, low-seed-oil mutant of Arabidopsis with a deficiency in the seed-specific regulation of carbohydrate metabolism.
    Plant Physiol., 1998. 118(1): p. 91-101