PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT3G23240.1
Common NameATERF1, ERF092, ERF1, ERF1B, K14B15.15
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Family ERF
Protein Properties Length: 218aa    MW: 24695.2 Da    PI: 4.7737
Description ethylene response factor 1
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT3G23240.1genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
          AP2   2 gykGVrwdkkrgrWvAeIrdpsengkrkrfslgkfgtaeeAakaaiaarkkleg 55 
                   y+GVr+++ +g+++AeIrd + ng   r++lg+f +aeeAa a+++a+ +++g
                  69*******.**********44465..*************************98 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
CDDcd000182.76E-2980138No hitNo description
PfamPF008471.1E-1381131IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
Gene3DG3DSA:3.30.730.107.3E-3081139IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
PROSITE profilePS5103222.73481139IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
SMARTSM003801.6E-3681145IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
SuperFamilySSF541715.89E-2281140IPR016177DNA-binding domain
PRINTSPR003671.9E-108293IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
PRINTSPR003671.9E-10105121IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0006355Biological Processregulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0006952Biological Processdefense response
GO:0009867Biological Processjasmonic acid mediated signaling pathway
GO:0009873Biological Processethylene-activated signaling pathway
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0003677Molecular FunctionDNA binding
GO:0003700Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0000293anatomyguard cell
PO:0009025anatomyvascular leaf
PO:0007115developmental stageLP.04 four leaves visible stage
PO:0007616developmental stageflowering stage
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 218 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
3D Structure ? help Back to Top
PDB ID Evalue Query Start Query End Hit Start Hit End Description
Search in ModeBase
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
Expression AtlasAT3G23240-
Expression -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniprotTISSUE SPECIFICITY: Ubiquitously expressed, mostly in flowers and rosettes after ethylene treatment. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11950980}.
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIRencodes a member of the ERF (ethylene response factor) subfamily B-3 of ERF/AP2 transcription factor family (ERF1). The protein contains one AP2 domain. There are 18 members in this subfamily including ATERF-1, ATERF-2, AND ATERF-5. EREBP like protein that binds GCC box of ethylene regulated promoters such as basic chitinases. Constitutive expression of ERF1 phenocopies ethylene over production. Involved in ethylene signaling cascade,downstream of EIN2 and EIN3.
UniProtActs as a transcriptional activator. Binds to the GCC-box pathogenesis-related promoter element. Involved in the regulation of gene expression during the plant development, and/or mediated by stress factors and by components of stress signal transduction pathways. Seems to be a key integrator of ethylene and jasmonate signals in the regulation of ethylene/jasmonate-dependent defenses. Can mediate resistance to necrotizing fungi (Botrytis cinerea and Plectosphaerella cucumerina) and to soil borne fungi (Fusarium oxysporum conglutinans and Fusiarium oxysporum lycopersici), but probably not to necrotizing bacteria (Pseudomonas syringae tomato). {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11950980, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12060224, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12509529, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15242170, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9851977}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. High- and medium-affinity binding sites are over-represented in promoters of MYC2- or ERF1-regulated genes, and therefore they may represent new cis-regulatory elements.
    [PMID: 21284757]
  2. ERF1 plays a positive role in salt, drought, and heat stress tolerance by stress-specific gene regulation, which integrates jasmonic acid, ethylene, and abscisic acid signals.
    [PMID: 23719892]
  3. Expression of several ethylene biosynthetic genes and ethylene-responsive factors, including ERF1 and ERF2, was induced during reoxygenation.
    [PMID: 24506560]
  4. Results provide evidence that AtERF1 is important for regulating AtNudt7 during oxidative signaling.
    [PMID: 25451743]
  5. Using loss- and gain-of-function transgenic lines as well as biochemical analysis, we demonstrate that ERF1 can directly up-regulate ASA1 by binding to its promoter, leading to auxin accumulation and ethylene-induced inhibition of root growth.
    [PMID: 26745809]
  6. UBC18 negatively regulated drought and salt stress responses by altering the abundance of ERF1 and the expression of genes downstream of ERF1.
    [PMID: 27787902]
Binding Motif ? help Back to Top
Motif ID Method Source Motif file
Motif logo
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
Regulation -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtINDUCTION: Induced by Pseudomonas syringae tomato (both virulent and avirulent avrRpt2 strains), independently of PAD4. Ethylene induction is completely dependent on functional ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2), ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3), which is itself a transcription factor and CORONATIVE-INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) proteins. Induction by jasmonate, B.cinerea or F.oxysporum as well as the synergistic induction by ethylene and jasmonate requires EIN2 and COI1. Induction by methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is independent of JAR1. Induction by salicylic acid (SA) is dependent on NPR1 but not on PAD4. Seems not to be induced by Alternaria brassicicola. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11950980, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12060224, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12509529, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12805630, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15242170, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9851977}.
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Upstream Regulators) ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G04370 (A), AT1G32640 (R), AT2G27050 (A), AT2G38470 (A), AT3G16770 (A), AT3G20770 (A), AT4G16110 (A), AT4G36920 (R), AT5G21120 (A)
Regulation -- Hormone ? help Back to Top
Source Hormone
AHDethylene, jasmonic acid
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT3G23240
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankAB0256080.0AB025608.1 Arabidopsis thaliana genomic DNA, chromosome 3, TAC clone:K14B15.
GenBankAF0762770.0AF076277.1 Arabidopsis thaliana ethylene response factor 1 (ERF1) mRNA, complete cds.
GenBankAF0762780.0AF076278.1 Arabidopsis thaliana ethylene response factor 1 (ERF1) gene, complete cds.
GenBankAF4283900.0AF428390.1 Arabidopsis thaliana AT3g23240/K14B15_13 mRNA, complete cds.
GenBankAY1336290.0AY133629.1 Arabidopsis thaliana AT3g23240/K14B15_13 mRNA, complete cds.
GenBankCP0026860.0CP002686.1 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 3, complete sequence.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_188965.11e-160ethylene response factor 1
SwissprotQ8LDC81e-161ERF92_ARATH; Ethylene-responsive transcription factor 1B
STRINGAT3G23240.11e-159(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Orthologous Group ? help Back to Top
LineageOrthologous Group IDTaxa NumberGene Number
Representative plantOGRP6161718
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Kosugi S,Ohashi Y
    Cloning and DNA-binding properties of a tobacco Ethylene-Insensitive3 (EIN3) homolog.
    Nucleic Acids Res., 2000. 28(4): p. 960-7
  2. Fujimoto SY,Ohta M,Usui A,Shinshi H,Ohme-Takagi M
    Arabidopsis ethylene-responsive element binding factors act as transcriptional activators or repressors of GCC box-mediated gene expression.
    Plant Cell, 2000. 12(3): p. 393-404
  3. Riechmann JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
    Science, 2000. 290(5499): p. 2105-10
  4. Tieman DM,Ciardi JA,Taylor MG,Klee HJ
    Members of the tomato LeEIL (EIN3-like) gene family are functionally redundant and regulate ethylene responses throughout plant development.
    Plant J., 2001. 26(1): p. 47-58
  5. O
    Identification of Arabidopsis ethylene-responsive element binding factors with distinct induction kinetics after pathogen infection.
    Plant Physiol., 2002. 128(4): p. 1313-22
  6. Wang KL,Li H,Ecker JR
    Ethylene biosynthesis and signaling networks.
    Plant Cell, 2002. 14 Suppl: p. S131-51
  7. Berrocal-Lobo M,Molina A,Solano R
    Constitutive expression of ETHYLENE-RESPONSE-FACTOR1 in Arabidopsis confers resistance to several necrotrophic fungi.
    Plant J., 2002. 29(1): p. 23-32
  8. Lorenzo O,Piqueras R,Sánchez-Serrano JJ,Solano R
    ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 integrates signals from ethylene and jasmonate pathways in plant defense.
    Plant Cell, 2003. 15(1): p. 165-78
  9. Alonso JM, et al.
    Five components of the ethylene-response pathway identified in a screen for weak ethylene-insensitive mutants in Arabidopsis.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2003. 100(5): p. 2992-7
  10. Brown RL,Kazan K,McGrath KC,Maclean DJ,Manners JM
    A role for the GCC-box in jasmonate-mediated activation of the PDF1.2 gene of Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2003. 132(2): p. 1020-32
  11. Yamada K, et al.
    Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome.
    Science, 2003. 302(5646): p. 842-6
  12. Chen G,Alexander L,Grierson D
    Constitutive expression of EIL-like transcription factor partially restores ripening in the ethylene-insensitive Nr tomato mutant.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2004. 55(402): p. 1491-7
  13. Klee HJ
    Ethylene signal transduction. Moving beyond Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2004. 135(2): p. 660-7
  14. Berrocal-Lobo M,Molina A
    Ethylene response factor 1 mediates Arabidopsis resistance to the soilborne fungus Fusarium oxysporum.
    Mol. Plant Microbe Interact., 2004. 17(7): p. 763-70
  15. Hass C, et al.
    The response regulator 2 mediates ethylene signalling and hormone signal integration in Arabidopsis.
    EMBO J., 2004. 23(16): p. 3290-302
  16. Chang C,Bleecker AB
    Ethylene biology. More than a gas.
    Plant Physiol., 2004. 136(2): p. 2895-9
  17. Nakano T,Suzuki K,Fujimura T,Shinshi H
    Genome-wide analysis of the ERF gene family in Arabidopsis and rice.
    Plant Physiol., 2006. 140(2): p. 411-32
  18. Barry CS,Giovannoni JJ
    Ripening in the tomato Green-ripe mutant is inhibited by ectopic expression of a protein that disrupts ethylene signaling.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2006. 103(20): p. 7923-8
  19. D
    A model of the ethylene signaling pathway and its gene response in Arabidopsis thaliana: pathway cross-talk and noise-filtering properties.
    Chaos, 2006. 16(2): p. 023112
  20. Oñate-Sánchez L,Anderson JP,Young J,Singh KB
    AtERF14, a member of the ERF family of transcription factors, plays a nonredundant role in plant defense.
    Plant Physiol., 2007. 143(1): p. 400-9
  21. Zarate SI,Kempema LA,Walling LL
    Silverleaf whitefly induces salicylic acid defenses and suppresses effectual jasmonic acid defenses.
    Plant Physiol., 2007. 143(2): p. 866-75
  22. Ogawa T,Uchimiya H,Kawai-Yamada M
    Mutual regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana ethylene-responsive element binding protein and a plant floral homeotic gene, APETALA2.
    Ann. Bot., 2007. 99(2): p. 239-44
  23. Robles LM,Wampole JS,Christians MJ,Larsen PB
    Arabidopsis enhanced ethylene response 4 encodes an EIN3-interacting TFIID transcription factor required for proper ethylene response, including ERF1 induction.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2007. 58(10): p. 2627-39
  24. Dombrecht B, et al.
    MYC2 differentially modulates diverse jasmonate-dependent functions in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2007. 19(7): p. 2225-45
  25. Dugardeyn J,Vandenbussche F,Van Der Straeten D
    To grow or not to grow: what can we learn on ethylene-gibberellin cross-talk by in silico gene expression analysis?
    J. Exp. Bot., 2008. 59(1): p. 1-16
  26. Konishi M,Yanagisawa S
    Ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis involves feedback regulation via the elaborate control of EBF2 expression by EIN3.
    Plant J., 2008. 55(5): p. 821-31
  27. Pré M, et al.
    The AP2/ERF domain transcription factor ORA59 integrates jasmonic acid and ethylene signals in plant defense.
    Plant Physiol., 2008. 147(3): p. 1347-57
  28. Wang S, et al.
    Molecular dynamics simulations reveal the disparity in specific recognition of GCC-box by AtERFs transcription factors super family in Arabidopsis.
    J. Mol. Recognit., 2009 Nov-Dec. 22(6): p. 474-9
  29. Chen T, et al.
    Effects of tobacco ethylene receptor mutations on receptor kinase activity, plant growth and stress responses.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2009. 50(9): p. 1636-50
  30. Gong W, et al.
    The development of protein microarrays and their applications in DNA-protein and protein-protein interaction analyses of Arabidopsis transcription factors.
    Mol Plant, 2008. 1(1): p. 27-41
  31. Zander M,La Camera S,Lamotte O,Métraux JP,Gatz C
    Arabidopsis thaliana class-II TGA transcription factors are essential activators of jasmonic acid/ethylene-induced defense responses.
    Plant J., 2010. 61(2): p. 200-10
  32. Yang S, et al.
    Four divergent Arabidopsis ethylene-responsive element-binding factor domains bind to a target DNA motif with a universal CG step core recognition and different flanking bases preference.
    FEBS J., 2009. 276(23): p. 7177-86
  33. Wawrzynska A,Rodibaugh NL,Innes RW
    Synergistic activation of defense responses in Arabidopsis by simultaneous loss of the GSL5 callose synthase and the EDR1 protein kinase.
    Mol. Plant Microbe Interact., 2010. 23(5): p. 578-84
  34. Kanchiswamy CN, et al.
    Regulation of Arabidopsis defense responses against Spodoptera littoralis by CPK-mediated calcium signaling.
    BMC Plant Biol., 2010. 10: p. 97
  35. Camehl I,Oelm
    Do ethylene response factorS9 and -14 repress PR gene expression in the interaction between Piriformospora indica and Arabidopsis?
    Plant Signal Behav, 2010. 5(8): p. 932-6
  36. Kwon YS, et al.
    Proteome analysis of Arabidopsis seedlings exposed to bacterial volatiles.
    Planta, 2010. 232(6): p. 1355-70
  37. Godoy M, et al.
    Improved protein-binding microarrays for the identification of DNA-binding specificities of transcription factors.
    Plant J., 2011. 66(4): p. 700-11
  38. Ou B, et al.
    A high-throughput screening system for Arabidopsis transcription factors and its application to Med25-dependent transcriptional regulation.
    Mol Plant, 2011. 4(3): p. 546-55
  39. Cela J,Chang C,Munné-Bosch S
    Accumulation of γ- rather than α-tocopherol alters ethylene signaling gene expression in the vte4 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2011. 52(8): p. 1389-400
  40. Hu Y,Shen Y,Conde E Silva N,Zhou DX
    The role of histone methylation and H2A.Z occupancy during rapid activation of ethylene responsive genes.
    PLoS ONE, 2011. 6(11): p. e28224
  41. Moffat CS, et al.
    ERF5 and ERF6 play redundant roles as positive regulators of JA/Et-mediated defense against Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis.
    PLoS ONE, 2012. 7(4): p. e35995
  42. Lu X, et al.
    Characterization of a novel ERF transcription factor in Artemisia annua and its induction kinetics after hormones and stress treatments.
    Mol. Biol. Rep., 2012. 39(10): p. 9521-7
  43. Zhong S, et al.
    A molecular framework of light-controlled phytohormone action in Arabidopsis.
    Curr. Biol., 2012. 22(16): p. 1530-5

  44. MEDIATOR25 acts as an integrative hub for the regulation of jasmonate-responsive gene expression in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2012. 160(1): p. 541-55
  45. Liang X, et al.
    Involvement of COP1 in ethylene- and light-regulated hypocotyl elongation.
    Planta, 2012. 236(6): p. 1791-802
  46. Shoji T,Mishima M,Hashimoto T
    Divergent DNA-binding specificities of a group of ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR transcription factors involved in plant defense.
    Plant Physiol., 2013. 162(2): p. 977-90
  47. Paudel J,Copley T,Amirizian A,Prado A,Bede JC
    Arabidopsis redox status in response to caterpillar herbivory.
    Front Plant Sci, 2013. 4: p. 113
  48. Cheng MC,Liao PM,Kuo WW,Lin TP
    The Arabidopsis ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 regulates abiotic stress-responsive gene expression by binding to different cis-acting elements in response to different stress signals.
    Plant Physiol., 2013. 162(3): p. 1566-82
  49. Chen L, et al.
    Arabidopsis BPM proteins function as substrate adaptors to a cullin3-based E3 ligase to affect fatty acid metabolism in plants.
    Plant Cell, 2013. 25(6): p. 2253-64
  50. Vahabi K,Camehl I,Sherameti I,Oelmüller R
    Growth of Arabidopsis seedlings on high fungal doses of Piriformospora indica has little effect on plant performance, stress, and defense gene expression in spite of elevated jasmonic acid and jasmonic acid-isoleucine levels in the roots.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2013. 8(11): p. e26301
  51. Kim HG, et al.
    GDSL LIPASE1 modulates plant immunity through feedback regulation of ethylene signaling.
    Plant Physiol., 2013. 163(4): p. 1776-91
  52. Li J,Jia H,Wang J
    cGMP and ethylene are involved in maintaining ion homeostasis under salt stress in Arabidopsis roots.
    Plant Cell Rep., 2014. 33(3): p. 447-59
  53. Tsai KJ,Chou SJ,Shih MC
    Ethylene plays an essential role in the recovery of Arabidopsis during post-anaerobiosis reoxygenation.
    Plant Cell Environ., 2014. 37(10): p. 2391-405
  54. Zhong S, et al.
    Ethylene-orchestrated circuitry coordinates a seedling's response to soil cover and etiolated growth.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2014. 111(11): p. 3913-20
  55. Kim HG, et al.
    GDSL lipase 1 regulates ethylene signaling and ethylene-associated systemic immunity in Arabidopsis.
    FEBS Lett., 2014. 588(9): p. 1652-8
  56. Schellingen K, et al.
    Cadmium-induced ethylene production and responses in Arabidopsis thaliana rely on ACS2 and ACS6 gene expression.
    BMC Plant Biol., 2014. 14: p. 214
  57. Ellouzi H, et al.
    A comparative study of the early osmotic, ionic, redox and hormonal signaling response in leaves and roots of two halophytes and a glycophyte to salinity.
    Planta, 2014. 240(6): p. 1299-317
  58. Muthuramalingam M,Zeng X,Iyer NJ,Klein P,Mahalingam R
    A GCC-box motif in the promoter of nudix hydrolase 7 (AtNUDT7) gene plays a role in ozone response of Arabidopsis ecotypes.
    Genomics, 2015. 105(1): p. 31-8
  59. Jin J, et al.
    An Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulatory Map Reveals Distinct Functional and Evolutionary Features of Novel Transcription Factors.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2015. 32(7): p. 1767-73
  60. Nguyen AH, et al.
    Loss of Arabidopsis 5'-3' Exoribonuclease AtXRN4 Function Enhances Heat Stress Tolerance of Plants Subjected to Severe Heat Stress.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2015. 56(9): p. 1762-72
  61. Mao JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis ERF1 Mediates Cross-Talk between Ethylene and Auxin Biosynthesis during Primary Root Elongation by Regulating ASA1 Expression.
    PLoS Genet., 2016. 12(1): p. e1005760
  62. Cheng MC,Kuo WC,Wang YM,Chen HY,Lin TP
    UBC18 mediates ERF1 degradation under light-dark cycles.
    New Phytol., 2017. 213(3): p. 1156-1167
  63. Timmermann T, et al.
    Paraburkholderia phytofirmans PsJN Protects Arabidopsis thaliana Against a Virulent Strain of Pseudomonas syringae Through the Activation of Induced Resistance.
    Mol. Plant Microbe Interact., 2017. 30(3): p. 215-230
  64. Yu Y,Huang R
    Integration of Ethylene and Light Signaling Affects Hypocotyl Growth in Arabidopsis.
    Front Plant Sci, 2017. 8: p. 57
  65. Lestari R, et al.
    Overexpression of Hevea brasiliensis ethylene response factor HbERF-IXc5 enhances growth and tolerance to abiotic stress and affects laticifer differentiation.
    Plant Biotechnol. J., 2018. 16(1): p. 322-336
  66. Dinolfo MI,Castañares E,Stenglein SA
    Resistance of Fusarium poae in Arabidopsis leaves requires mainly functional JA and ET signaling pathways.
    Fungal Biol, 2017. 121(10): p. 841-848
  67. Theologis A
    Ethylene signalling: redundant receptors all have their say.
    Curr. Biol., 1998. 8(24): p. R875-8
  68. Solano R,Stepanova A,Chao Q,Ecker JR
    Nuclear events in ethylene signaling: a transcriptional cascade mediated by ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE3 and ETHYLENE-RESPONSE-FACTOR1.
    Genes Dev., 1998. 12(23): p. 3703-14