PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT1G51190.1
Common NameAIL4, F11M15.6, PLT2
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Family AP2
Protein Properties Length: 568aa    MW: 62233.1 Da    PI: 6.8282
Description AP2 family protein
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT1G51190.1genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
          AP2   1 55 
                  s y+GV++++++gr++A+++d  +   g  ++ ++++lg ++ +e+Aa+a++ a++k++g
                  57*******************666664477446*************************98 PP

          AP2   3 ykGVrwdkkrgrWvAeIrdpsengkrkrfslgkfgtaeeAakaaiaarkkleg 55 
                  y+GV+++++ grW A+I  +     +k  +lg+f t+eeAa+a++ a+ k++g
                  9***************988532...5************************998 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
CDDcd000182.89E-22189258No hitNo description
SuperFamilySSF541712.94E-17189257IPR016177DNA-binding domain
PfamPF008473.3E-12189248IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
PROSITE profilePS5103219.322190256IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
SMARTSM003806.2E-30190262IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
Gene3DG3DSA:3.30.730.105.5E-16190256IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
PRINTSPR003675.1E-6191202IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
SuperFamilySSF541719.15E-18291351IPR016177DNA-binding domain
CDDcd000183.85E-24291352No hitNo description
PROSITE profilePS5103219.506292350IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
SMARTSM003801.5E-32292356IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
Gene3DG3DSA:3.30.730.104.7E-18292350IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
PfamPF008471.5E-9293342IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
PRINTSPR003675.1E-6332352IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0000723Biological Processtelomere maintenance
GO:0006355Biological Processregulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0007389Biological Processpattern specification process
GO:0009734Biological Processauxin-activated signaling pathway
GO:0009873Biological Processethylene-activated signaling pathway
GO:0010073Biological Processmeristem maintenance
GO:0010449Biological Processroot meristem growth
GO:0019827Biological Processstem cell population maintenance
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0003677Molecular FunctionDNA binding
GO:0003700Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0005515Molecular Functionprotein binding
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 568 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
Expression AtlasAT1G51190-
Expression -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniprotDEVELOPMENTAL STAGE: Accumulates in the basal embryo region that gives rise to hypocotyl, root, and root stem cells. Expressed in the root meristem throughout embryo development. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15454085, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20190735}.
UniprotTISSUE SPECIFICITY: Expressed in roots, seedlings, flowers, and siliques. Also detected at low levels in leaves. In roots, specifically detected in the distal root meristem, including the QC. This tissue specificity is regulated by auxin gradient and depends on PIN proteins. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15454085, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15635403, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15988559, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16424342, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20190735}.
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIREncodes a member of the AINTEGUMENTA-like (AIL) subclass of the AP2/EREBP family of transcription factors and is essential for quiescent center (QC) specification and stem cell activity. It is a key effector for establishment of the stem cell niche during embryonic pattern formation. It is transcribed in response to auxin accumulation and is dependent on auxin response transcription factors.
UniProtProbably acts as a transcriptional activator. Binds to the GCC-box pathogenesis-related promoter element. May be involved in the regulation of gene expression by stress factors and by components of stress signal transduction pathways (By similarity). Master regulator of basal/root fate. Essential for root quiescent center (QC) and columella specification, stem cell activity, as well as for establishment of the stem cell niche during embryogenesis. Modulates the root polar auxin transport by regulating the distribution of PIN genes. Essential role in respecifying pattern and polarity in damaged roots. Direct target of the transcriptional corepressor TPL. Expression levels and patterns regulated post-transcriptionally by root meristem growth factors (RGFs). {ECO:0000250, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15454085, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15635403, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16424342, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20190735}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. RopGEF7 is required for root meristem maintenance as it regulates the expression of PLETHORA1 (PLT1) and PLT2, which are key transcription factors that mediate the patterning of the root stem cell niche.
    [PMID: 21828289]
  2. PLT1 and PLT2 are key interaction nodes between jasmonate and auxin in the regulation of root stem cell niche maintenance and meristem activity.
    [PMID: 21954460]
  3. These results suggest that endogenous L-cysteine level acts to maintain root stem cell niche by regulating basal- and auxin-induced expression of PLT1/2 and SCR/SHR.
    [PMID: 24798139]
  4. The abo8 mutation affects the expression of PLT1 and PLT2; plt1 and plt2 mutants are sensitive to ABA in root growth
    [PMID: 25522358]
  5. ABA treatment reduced the expression levels of the PIN-FORMEDs (PIN) auxin efflux carriers, PIN1, PIN3, PIN4, and PIN7, to a greater extent in the root meristems of arf2-101 mutant than in the wild type. ARF2 positively mediates the transcripts of transcription factor PLETHORA 1 (PLT1) gene but negatively mediates PLT2 at protein level in root meristems.
    [PMID: 28074634]
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
Regulation -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtINDUCTION: By auxin accumulation. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15454085}.
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
Interaction ? help Back to Top
Source Intact With
IntActSearch Q5YGP7
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT1G51190
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankAY5065500.0AY506550.1 Arabidopsis thaliana PLETHORA2 (PLT2) mRNA, complete cds.
GenBankBT0202770.0BT020277.1 Arabidopsis thaliana At1g51190 mRNA, complete cds.
GenBankBT0204600.0BT020460.1 Arabidopsis thaliana At1g51190 mRNA, complete cds.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_175530.20.0Integrase-type DNA-binding superfamily protein
SwissprotQ5YGP70.0PLET2_ARATH; AP2-like ethylene-responsive transcription factor PLT2
STRINGAT1G51190.10.0(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Orthologous Group ? help Back to Top
LineageOrthologous Group IDTaxa NumberGene Number
Representative plantOGRP11217209
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Riechmann JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
    Science, 2000. 290(5499): p. 2105-10
  2. Aida M, et al.
    The PLETHORA genes mediate patterning of the Arabidopsis root stem cell niche.
    Cell, 2004. 119(1): p. 109-20
  3. Blilou I, et al.
    The PIN auxin efflux facilitator network controls growth and patterning in Arabidopsis roots.
    Nature, 2005. 433(7021): p. 39-44
  4. Nole-Wilson S,Tranby TL,Krizek BA
    AINTEGUMENTA-like (AIL) genes are expressed in young tissues and may specify meristematic or division-competent states.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2005. 57(5): p. 613-28
  5. Duarte JM, et al.
    Expression pattern shifts following duplication indicative of subfunctionalization and neofunctionalization in regulatory genes of Arabidopsis.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2006. 23(2): p. 469-78
  6. Nakano T,Suzuki K,Fujimura T,Shinshi H
    Genome-wide analysis of the ERF gene family in Arabidopsis and rice.
    Plant Physiol., 2006. 140(2): p. 411-32
  7. Xu J, et al.
    A molecular framework for plant regeneration.
    Science, 2006. 311(5759): p. 385-8
  8. Dello Ioio R, et al.
    Cytokinins determine Arabidopsis root-meristem size by controlling cell differentiation.
    Curr. Biol., 2007. 17(8): p. 678-82
  9. Galinha C, et al.
    PLETHORA proteins as dose-dependent master regulators of Arabidopsis root development.
    Nature, 2007. 449(7165): p. 1053-7
  10. Iyer-Pascuzzi AS,Benfey PN
    Transcriptional networks in root cell fate specification.
    Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 2009. 1789(4): p. 315-25
  11. Casson SA,Topping JF,Lindsey K
    MERISTEM-DEFECTIVE, an RS domain protein, is required for the correct meristem patterning and function in Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2009. 57(5): p. 857-69
  12. Kornet N,Scheres B
    Members of the GCN5 histone acetyltransferase complex regulate PLETHORA-mediated root stem cell niche maintenance and transit amplifying cell proliferation in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2009. 21(4): p. 1070-9
  13. Ishida T, et al.
    SUMO E3 ligase HIGH PLOIDY2 regulates endocycle onset and meristem maintenance in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2009. 21(8): p. 2284-97
  14. Sato A,Yamamoto KT
    What's the physiological role of domain II-less Aux/IAA proteins?
    Plant Signal Behav, 2008. 3(7): p. 496-7
  15. Smith ZR,Long JA
    Control of Arabidopsis apical-basal embryo polarity by antagonistic transcription factors.
    Nature, 2010. 464(7287): p. 423-6
  16. Matsuzaki Y,Ogawa-Ohnishi M,Mori A,Matsubayashi Y
    Secreted peptide signals required for maintenance of root stem cell niche in Arabidopsis.
    Science, 2010. 329(5995): p. 1065-7
  17. El Ouakfaoui S, et al.
    Control of somatic embryogenesis and embryo development by AP2 transcription factors.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2010. 74(4-5): p. 313-26
  18. Zhou W, et al.
    Arabidopsis Tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase acts in the auxin/PLETHORA pathway in regulating postembryonic maintenance of the root stem cell niche.
    Plant Cell, 2010. 22(11): p. 3692-709
  19. Brady SM, et al.
    A stele-enriched gene regulatory network in the Arabidopsis root.
    Mol. Syst. Biol., 2011. 7: p. 459
  20. Chen M, et al.
    RopGEF7 regulates PLETHORA-dependent maintenance of the root stem cell niche in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2011. 23(8): p. 2880-94
  21. Chen Q, et al.
    The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor MYC2 directly represses PLETHORA expression during jasmonate-mediated modulation of the root stem cell niche in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2011. 23(9): p. 3335-52
  22. Dhonukshe P, et al.
    A PLETHORA-auxin transcription module controls cell division plane rotation through MAP65 and CLASP.
    Cell, 2012. 149(2): p. 383-96
  23. Lee DK,Sieburth LE
    The bps signal: embryonic arrest from an auxin-independent mechanism in bypass triple mutants.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2012. 7(6): p. 698-700
  24. Kong Y, et al.
    Tissue-specific expression of SMALL AUXIN UP RNA41 differentially regulates cell expansion and root meristem patterning in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2013. 54(4): p. 609-21
  25. Koizumi K,Gallagher KL
    Identification of SHRUBBY, a SHORT-ROOT and SCARECROW interacting protein that controls root growth and radial patterning.
    Development, 2013. 140(6): p. 1292-300
  26. Hong LW,Yan DW,Liu WC,Chen HG,Lu YT
    TIME FOR COFFEE controls root meristem size by changes in auxin accumulation in Arabidopsis.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2014. 65(1): p. 275-86
  27. Tian H,Jia Y,Niu T,Yu Q,Ding Z
    The key players of the primary root growth and development also function in lateral roots in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell Rep., 2014. 33(5): p. 745-53
  28. Wang Z,Mao JL,Zhao YJ,Li CY,Xiang CB
    L-Cysteine inhibits root elongation through auxin/PLETHORA and SCR/SHR pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    J Integr Plant Biol, 2015. 57(2): p. 186-97
  29. Zhao Q, et al.
    Sulfur nutrient availability regulates root elongation by affecting root indole-3-acetic acid levels and the stem cell niche.
    J Integr Plant Biol, 2014. 56(12): p. 1151-63
  30. Huang JB, et al.
    ROP3 GTPase contributes to polar auxin transport and auxin responses and is important for embryogenesis and seedling growth in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2014. 26(9): p. 3501-18
  31. Yang L, et al.
    ABA-mediated ROS in mitochondria regulate root meristem activity by controlling PLETHORA expression in Arabidopsis.
    PLoS Genet., 2014. 10(12): p. e1004791
  32. Gonz
    Single-cell telomere-length quantification couples telomere length to meristem activity and stem cell development in Arabidopsis.
    Cell Rep, 2015. 11(6): p. 977-89
  33. Yang S, et al.
    The Arabidopsis SWI2/SNF2 Chromatin Remodeling ATPase BRAHMA Targets Directly to PINs and Is Required for Root Stem Cell Niche Maintenance.
    Plant Cell, 2015. 27(6): p. 1670-80
  34. Jia Y, et al.
    The Arabidopsis thaliana elongator complex subunit 2 epigenetically affects root development.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2015. 66(15): p. 4631-42
  35. Zhang M, et al.
    A tetratricopeptide repeat domain-containing protein SSR1 located in mitochondria is involved in root development and auxin polar transport in Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2015. 83(4): p. 582-99
  36. Shinohara H,Mori A,Yasue N,Sumida K,Matsubayashi Y
    Identification of three LRR-RKs involved in perception of root meristem growth factor in Arabidopsis.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2016. 113(14): p. 3897-902
  37. Ou Y, et al.
    RGF1 INSENSITIVE 1 to 5, a group of LRR receptor-like kinases, are essential for the perception of root meristem growth factor 1 in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Cell Res., 2016. 26(6): p. 686-98
  38. Santuari L, et al.
    The PLETHORA Gene Regulatory Network Guides Growth and Cell Differentiation in Arabidopsis Roots.
    Plant Cell, 2016. 28(12): p. 2937-2951
  39. Promchuea S,Zhu Y,Chen Z,Zhang J,Gong Z
    ARF2 coordinates with PLETHORAs and PINs to orchestrate ABA-mediated root meristem activity in Arabidopsis .
    J Integr Plant Biol, 2017. 59(1): p. 30-43
  40. Du Y,Scheres B
    PLETHORA transcription factors orchestrate de novo organ patterning during Arabidopsis lateral root outgrowth.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2017. 114(44): p. 11709-11714
  41. Bustillo-Avendaño E, et al.
    Regulation of Hormonal Control, Cell Reprogramming, and Patterning during De Novo Root Organogenesis.
    Plant Physiol., 2018. 176(2): p. 1709-1727