PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT1G26310.1
Common NameAGL10, CAL, CAL1, F28B23.24
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Protein Properties Length: 255aa    MW: 30187.4 Da    PI: 8.3045
Description MIKC_MADS family protein
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT1G26310.1genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
       SRF-TF  1 krienksnrqvtfskRrngilKKAeELSvLCdaevaviifsstgklyeyss 51
                 79***********************************************96 PP

        K-box   9 leeakaeslqqelakLkkeienLqreqRhllGedLesLslkeLqqLeqqLekslkkiRskKnellleqieelqkkekelqeenkaLrkklee 100
                   + + + +++ e+++Lk++ie L+r+qRh+lGe+Le++slk+Lq+LeqqLe++lk+iRs+Kn+l+ e++++lq+keke+qeen +L+k+++e
                  55667899*********************************************************************************987 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
PROSITE profilePS5006632.142161IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
SMARTSM004321.7E-39160IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
SuperFamilySSF554559.68E-34285IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
CDDcd002651.79E-41279No hitNo description
PRINTSPR004041.4E-30323IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PROSITE patternPS003500357IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PfamPF003191.2E-241057IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PRINTSPR004041.4E-302338IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PRINTSPR004041.4E-303859IPR002100Transcription factor, MADS-box
PfamPF014863.9E-3085174IPR002487Transcription factor, K-box
PROSITE profilePS5129717.2290180IPR002487Transcription factor, K-box
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0006355Biological Processregulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0009911Biological Processpositive regulation of flower development
GO:0010582Biological Processfloral meristem determinacy
GO:0030154Biological Processcell differentiation
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0003677Molecular FunctionDNA binding
GO:0003700Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0005515Molecular Functionprotein binding
GO:0046983Molecular Functionprotein dimerization activity
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0000037anatomyshoot apex
PO:0009009anatomyplant embryo
PO:0009052anatomyflower pedicel
PO:0025022anatomycollective leaf structure
PO:0001078developmental stageplant embryo cotyledonary stage
PO:0001081developmental stagemature plant embryo stage
PO:0004507developmental stageplant embryo bilateral stage
PO:0007611developmental stagepetal differentiation and expansion stage
PO:0007616developmental stageflowering stage
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 255 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
3D Structure ? help Back to Top
PDB ID Evalue Query Start Query End Hit Start Hit End Description
6byy_A1e-20174173MEF2 CHIMERA
6byy_B1e-20174173MEF2 CHIMERA
6byy_C1e-20174173MEF2 CHIMERA
6byy_D1e-20174173MEF2 CHIMERA
6bz1_A1e-20174173MEF2 CHIMERA
6bz1_B1e-20174173MEF2 CHIMERA
6bz1_C1e-20174173MEF2 CHIMERA
6bz1_D1e-20174173MEF2 CHIMERA
Search in ModeBase
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
Expression AtlasAT1G26310-
Expression -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniprotDEVELOPMENTAL STAGE: Expressed at an early stage of floral initiation.
UniprotTISSUE SPECIFICITY: Expressed in young flower primordia.
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIRFloral homeotic gene encoding a MADS domain protein homologous to AP1. Enhances the flower to shoot transformation in ap1 mutants.
UniProtProbable transcription factor that promotes early floral meristem identity in synergy with APETALA1, FRUITFULL and LEAFY. Is required subsequently for the transition of an inflorescence meristem into a floral meristem. Seems to be partially redundant to the function of APETALA1. Positively regulates the APETALA1 and LEAFY expression. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10648231, ECO:0000269|Ref.6}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. Expression of the transcription factor CAL is activated by LFY and the meristem identity regulator LMI1.
    [PMID: 16554366]
  2. The unique and redundant functions of the APETALA1 and CAULIFLOWER genes have been mapped to the four protein domains that characterize type-II MADS-domain proteins.
    [PMID: 16893974]
  3. the differences between the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) APETALA1 (AP1) and CAULIFLOWER (CAL) duplicate genes in the time, space, and level of expression were determined by the presence or absence of functionally important transcription factor-binding sites (TFBSs) in regulatory regions.
    [PMID: 27208240]
  4. LFY and AP1/CAL act as part of an incoherent feed-forward loop, a network motif where two interconnected pathways or transcription factors act in opposite directions on a target gene, to control the establishment of a stable developmental program for the formation of flowers.
    [PMID: 28385730]
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Upstream Regulators) ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT2G22540 (A), AT2G27990 (A), AT5G02030 (A), AT5G03790 (A), AT5G61850 (A)
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Target Genes) ? help Back to Top
Source Target Gene (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G69120(A), AT5G03840(R), AT5G61850(A)
Interaction ? help Back to Top
Source Intact With
IntActSearch Q39081
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT1G26310
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankAB4934770.0AB493477.1 Arabidopsis thaliana At1g26310 mRNA for hypothetical protein, partial cds, clone: RAAt1g26310.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_564243.10.0K-box region and MADS-box transcription factor family protein
SwissprotQ390810.0CAL_ARATH; Transcription factor CAULIFLOWER
STRINGAT1G26310.10.0(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Orthologous Group ? help Back to Top
LineageOrthologous Group IDTaxa NumberGene Number
Representative plantOGRP1617761
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Ratcliffe OJ,Bradley DJ,Coen ES
    Separation of shoot and floral identity in Arabidopsis.
    Development, 1999. 126(6): p. 1109-20
  2. Aukerman MJ,Lee I,Weigel D,Amasino RM
    The Arabidopsis flowering-time gene LUMINIDEPENDENS is expressed primarily in regions of cell proliferation and encodes a nuclear protein that regulates LEAFY expression.
    Plant J., 1999. 18(2): p. 195-203
  3. Liljegren SJ,Gustafson-Brown C,Pinyopich A,Ditta GS,Yanofsky MF
    Interactions among APETALA1, LEAFY, and TERMINAL FLOWER1 specify meristem fate.
    Plant Cell, 1999. 11(6): p. 1007-18
  4. Lawton-Rauh AL,Buckler ES,Purugganan MD
    Patterns of molecular evolution among paralogous floral homeotic genes.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 1999. 16(8): p. 1037-45
  5. Lowman AC,Purugganan MD
    Duplication of the Brassica oleracea APETALA1 floral homeotic gene and the evolution of domesticated cauliflower.
    J. Hered., 1999 Sep-Oct. 90(5): p. 514-20
  6. Hempel FD,Welch DR,Feldman LJ
    Floral induction and determination: where is flowering controlled?
    Trends Plant Sci., 2000. 5(1): p. 17-21
  7. Ferrándiz C,Gu Q,Martienssen R,Yanofsky MF
    Redundant regulation of meristem identity and plant architecture by FRUITFULL, APETALA1 and CAULIFLOWER.
    Development, 2000. 127(4): p. 725-34
  8. Purugganan MD,Boyles AL,Suddith JI
    Variation and selection at the CAULIFLOWER floral homeotic gene accompanying the evolution of domesticated Brassica oleracea.
    Genetics, 2000. 155(2): p. 855-62
  9. Riechmann JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
    Science, 2000. 290(5499): p. 2105-10
  10. Pelaz S,Gustafson-Brown C,Kohalmi SE,Crosby WL,Yanofsky MF
    APETALA1 and SEPALLATA3 interact to promote flower development.
    Plant J., 2001. 26(4): p. 385-94
  11. Munir J,Dorn LA,Donohue K,Schmitt J
    The effect of maternal photoperiod on seasonal dormancy in Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae).
    Am. J. Bot., 2001. 88(7): p. 1240-9
  12. Brendel V,Zhu W
    Computational modeling of gene structure in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2002. 48(1-2): p. 49-58
  13. Olsen KM,Womack A,Garrett AR,Suddith JI,Purugganan MD
    Contrasting evolutionary forces in the Arabidopsis thaliana floral developmental pathway.
    Genetics, 2002. 160(4): p. 1641-50
  14. Parenicová L, et al.
    Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the complete MADS-box transcription factor family in Arabidopsis: new openings to the MADS world.
    Plant Cell, 2003. 15(7): p. 1538-51
  15. William DA, et al.
    Genomic identification of direct target genes of LEAFY.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2004. 101(6): p. 1775-80
  16. Boss PK,Bastow RM,Mylne JS,Dean C
    Multiple pathways in the decision to flower: enabling, promoting, and resetting.
    Plant Cell, 2004. 16 Suppl: p. S18-31
  17. de Folter S, et al.
    Comprehensive interaction map of the Arabidopsis MADS Box transcription factors.
    Plant Cell, 2005. 17(5): p. 1424-33
  18. Castillejo C,Romera-Branchat M,Pelaz S
    A new role of the Arabidopsis SEPALLATA3 gene revealed by its constitutive expression.
    Plant J., 2005. 43(4): p. 586-96
  19. Saddic LA, et al.
    The LEAFY target LMI1 is a meristem identity regulator and acts together with LEAFY to regulate expression of CAULIFLOWER.
    Development, 2006. 133(9): p. 1673-82
  20. Sundström JF,Nakayama N,Glimelius K,Irish VF
    Direct regulation of the floral homeotic APETALA1 gene by APETALA3 and PISTILLATA in Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2006. 46(4): p. 593-600
  21. Alvarez-Buylla ER,García-Ponce B,Garay-Arroyo A
    Unique and redundant functional domains of APETALA1 and CAULIFLOWER, two recently duplicated Arabidopsis thaliana floral MADS-box genes.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2006. 57(12): p. 3099-107
  22. Sablowski R
    Flowering and determinacy in Arabidopsis.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2007. 58(5): p. 899-907
  23. Pei Y, et al.
    Mutations in the Type II protein arginine methyltransferase AtPRMT5 result in pleiotropic developmental defects in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2007. 144(4): p. 1913-23
  24. Schmidt UG, et al.
    Novel tonoplast transporters identified using a proteomic approach with vacuoles isolated from cauliflower buds.
    Plant Physiol., 2007. 145(1): p. 216-29
  25. Kanrar S,Bhattacharya M,Arthur B,Courtier J,Smith HM
    Regulatory networks that function to specify flower meristems require the function of homeobox genes PENNYWISE and POUND-FOOLISH in Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2008. 54(5): p. 924-37
  26. Gregis V,Sessa A,Colombo L,Kater MM
    AGAMOUS-LIKE24 and SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE determine floral meristem identity in Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2008. 56(6): p. 891-902
  27. Hamès C, et al.
    Structural basis for LEAFY floral switch function and similarity with helix-turn-helix proteins.
    EMBO J., 2008. 27(19): p. 2628-37
  28. Park W,Zhai J,Lee JY
    Highly efficient gene silencing using perfect complementary artificial miRNA targeting AP1 or heteromeric artificial miRNA targeting AP1 and CAL genes.
    Plant Cell Rep., 2009. 28(3): p. 469-80
  29. Skinner DJ,Gasser CS
    Expression-based discovery of candidate ovule development regulators through transcriptional profiling of ovule mutants.
    BMC Plant Biol., 2009. 9: p. 29
  30. Kalamaki MS, et al.
    Over-expression of a tomato N-acetyl-L-glutamate synthase gene (SlNAGS1) in Arabidopsis thaliana results in high ornithine levels and increased tolerance in salt and drought stresses.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2009. 60(6): p. 1859-71
  31. Hily JM,Singer SD,Yang Y,Liu Z
    A transformation booster sequence (TBS) from Petunia hybrida functions as an enhancer-blocking insulator in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Cell Rep., 2009. 28(7): p. 1095-104
  32. Bertoni G
    PUCHI and floral meristem identity.
    Plant Cell, 2009. 21(5): p. 1327
  33. Karim MR,Hirota A,Kwiatkowska D,Tasaka M,Aida M
    A role for Arabidopsis PUCHI in floral meristem identity and bract suppression.
    Plant Cell, 2009. 21(5): p. 1360-72
  34. Gregis V,Sessa A,Dorca-Fornell C,Kater MM
    The Arabidopsis floral meristem identity genes AP1, AGL24 and SVP directly repress class B and C floral homeotic genes.
    Plant J., 2009. 60(4): p. 626-37
  35. Xu M, et al.
    Arabidopsis BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 and 2 promote floral meristem fate and determinacy in a previously undefined pathway targeting APETALA1 and AGAMOUS-LIKE24.
    Plant J., 2010. 63(6): p. 974-89
  36. Zhou X, et al.
    The cauliflower Orange gene enhances petiole elongation by suppressing expression of eukaryotic release factor 1.
    New Phytol., 2011. 190(1): p. 89-100
  37. Yang Y,Karlson DT
    Overexpression of AtCSP4 affects late stages of embryo development in Arabidopsis.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2011. 62(6): p. 2079-91
  38. Liu Z, et al.
    Overexpression of a resveratrol synthase gene (PcRS) from Polygonum cuspidatum in transgenic Arabidopsis causes the accumulation of trans-piceid with antifungal activity.
    Plant Cell Rep., 2011. 30(11): p. 2027-36
  39. Pogorelko G, et al.
    Post-synthetic modification of plant cell walls by expression of microbial hydrolases in the apoplast.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2011. 77(4-5): p. 433-45
  40. Grandi V,Gregis V,Kater MM
    Uncovering genetic and molecular interactions among floral meristem identity genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant J., 2012. 69(5): p. 881-93
  41. Chiu LW,Li L
    Characterization of the regulatory network of BoMYB2 in controlling anthocyanin biosynthesis in purple cauliflower.
    Planta, 2012. 236(4): p. 1153-64
  42. Tsai AY, et al.
    Constitutive expression of a fungal glucuronoyl esterase in Arabidopsis reveals altered cell wall composition and structure.
    Plant Biotechnol. J., 2012. 10(9): p. 1077-87
  43. Takahashi S,Ono M,Uchida A,Nakayama K,Satoh H
    Molecular cloning and functional expression of a water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein from Japanese wild radish.
    J. Plant Physiol., 2013. 170(4): p. 406-12
  44. Jin J, et al.
    An Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulatory Map Reveals Distinct Functional and Evolutionary Features of Novel Transcription Factors.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2015. 32(7): p. 1767-73
  45. Ye L,Wang B,Zhang W,Shan H,Kong H
    Gains and Losses of Cis-regulatory Elements Led to Divergence of the Arabidopsis APETALA1 and CAULIFLOWER Duplicate Genes in the Time, Space, and Level of Expression and Regulation of One Paralog by the Other.
    Plant Physiol., 2016. 171(2): p. 1055-69
  46. Goslin K, et al.
    Transcription Factor Interplay between LEAFY and APETALA1/CAULIFLOWER during Floral Initiation.
    Plant Physiol., 2017. 174(2): p. 1097-1109
  47. Smyth DR
    Flower development. Origin of the cauliflower.
    Curr. Biol., 1995. 5(4): p. 361-3
  48. Kempin SA,Savidge B,Yanofsky MF
    Molecular basis of the cauliflower phenotype in Arabidopsis.
    Science, 1995. 267(5197): p. 522-5
  49. Ruiz-García L, et al.
    Different roles of flowering-time genes in the activation of floral initiation genes in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 1997. 9(11): p. 1921-34
  50. Chen L,Cheng JC,Castle L,Sung ZR
    EMF genes regulate Arabidopsis inflorescence development.
    Plant Cell, 1997. 9(11): p. 2011-24
  51. Purugganan MD,Suddith JI
    Molecular population genetics of the Arabidopsis CAULIFLOWER regulatory gene: nonneutral evolution and naturally occurring variation in floral homeotic function.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 1998. 95(14): p. 8130-4
  52. Sawa S,Ito T,Shimura Y,Okada K
    FILAMENTOUS FLOWER controls the formation and development of arabidopsis inflorescences and floral meristems.
    Plant Cell, 1999. 11(1): p. 69-86