PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT1G24590.1
Common NameDRNL, DRN-LIKE, ERF090, ESR2, F21J9.25, SOB2
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Family ERF
Protein Properties Length: 306aa    MW: 33828.8 Da    PI: 6.851
Description DORNROSCHEN-like
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT1G24590.1genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
          AP2   2 gykGVrwdkkrgrWvAeIrdpsengkr.krfslgkfgtaeeAakaaiaarkkleg 55 
                  +y+GVr+++ +gr++AeIrdp     +  r +lg+f+taeeAa a++ a+++++g
                  59*******.**********73....35999**********************98 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
SuperFamilySSF541712.35E-2157114IPR016177DNA-binding domain
PROSITE profilePS5103221.91857114IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
PfamPF008479.5E-1157106IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
Gene3DG3DSA:3.30.730.103.4E-2957113IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
CDDcd000181.84E-3057113No hitNo description
SMARTSM003809.9E-3357120IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
PRINTSPR003671.5E-95869IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
PRINTSPR003671.5E-98096IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0006355Biological Processregulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0009733Biological Processresponse to auxin
GO:0009736Biological Processcytokinin-activated signaling pathway
GO:0009740Biological Processgibberellic acid mediated signaling pathway
GO:0009873Biological Processethylene-activated signaling pathway
GO:0009880Biological Processembryonic pattern specification
GO:0048825Biological Processcotyledon development
GO:0051726Biological Processregulation of cell cycle
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0003677Molecular FunctionDNA binding
GO:0003700Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0005515Molecular Functionprotein binding
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0000017anatomyvascular leaf primordium
PO:0009009anatomyplant embryo
PO:0001078developmental stageplant embryo cotyledonary stage
PO:0001185developmental stageplant embryo globular stage
PO:0004507developmental stageplant embryo bilateral stage
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 306 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
3D Structure ? help Back to Top
PDB ID Evalue Query Start Query End Hit Start Hit End Description
5wx9_A1e-1847113471Ethylene-responsive transcription factor ERF096
Search in ModeBase
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
Expression AtlasAT1G24590-
Expression -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniprotDEVELOPMENTAL STAGE: First observed in the embryo at globular stage in cotyledons primordia and later confined to cotyledons tips and shoot apical meristem. Also detected in emerging leaf primordia. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17056621, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17376809}.
UniprotTISSUE SPECIFICITY: Cotyledons, leaf primordia and shoot apical meristems. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17056621, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17376809}.
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIREncodes a member of the ERF (ethylene response factor) subfamily B-1 of ERF/AP2 transcription factor family. The protein contains one AP2 domain. There are 15 members in this subfamily including ATERF-3, ATERF-4, ATERF-7, and LEAFY PETIOLE. This gene functions in the regeneration of shoots in tissue culture, probably through transcriptional regulation of CUC1. May also be involved in activation of the cell cycle via CycD1;1.
UniProtRequired for correct embryo patterning and cotyledon organogenesis. May regulate positively the gibberellin signaling pathway leading to germination, hypocotyl elongation, and leaf expansion. Involved in the cytokinin signaling pathway that promotes shoot regeneration, probably through transcriptional activation of target genes such as CUC1. Acts as a transcriptional activator. Binds to the GCC-box pathogenesis-related promoter element. May be involved in the regulation of gene expression by stress factors and by components of stress signal transduction pathways (By similarity). {ECO:0000250, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16339853, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17056621, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17376809}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. ESR2 plays a role in shoot regeneration through transcriptional regulation of CUC1.[ESR2]
    [PMID: 17056621]
  2. Drn Drnl double mutants with weak or strong drnl alleles show more highly penetrant and extreme phenotypes, including a pin-like embryo without cotyledons, confirming a high degree of functional redundancy for the two genes in embryo patterning.
    [PMID: 17376809]
  3. Data suggest that DRNL plays a critical role in stamen emergence in Arabidopsis.
    [PMID: 17682829]
  4. interaction of BIM1 with DRN, involved with auxin signalling, represents a possible point of hormonal crosstalk in embryonic patterning and the first example of an interaction of components of the auxin and BR signalling pathways
    [PMID: 18830673]
  5. DRN and DRNL act cell-autonomously and are co-expressed in the early globular embryo, whereas expression patterns diverge during later stages of embryogeny
    [PMID: 21161330]
  6. Data show that drnl mutants are affected in floral organ outgrowth.
    [PMID: 21547450]
  7. ESR1 is expressed both prior to and during shoot formation, whereas ESR2 is expressed only during shoot formation.
    [PMID: 21600396]
  8. DRNL expression marks floral morphogenetic fields and founder cells.
    [PMID: 21758017]
  9. Induction of the transcriptional activator DORNROSCHEN-LIKE (DRNL) activates the transcription of STY1 and other SHI/STY family members and that this activation is dependent on a functional GCC box.
    [PMID: 21976484]
  10. Although DRN and DRNL transgenic lines are both activated in surface cells, their promoter activity marks different cell identities.
    [PMID: 23011125]
  11. Study shows that DRN and DRNL promote cell proliferation, most probably via the G1-S transition.
    [PMID: 27277595]
  12. The combined loss of function of DORNROSCHEN, DORNROSCHEN-LIKE, and PUCHI leads to synergistic floral phenotypes, including reduced floral merosity in all whorls, which reflects redundant functions of all three genes in organ initiation rather than outgrowth.
    [PMID: 28859377]
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Target Genes) ? help Back to Top
Source Target Gene (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT3G15170(A)
Regulation -- Hormone ? help Back to Top
Source Hormone
AHDauxin, Brassinosteroid
Interaction ? help Back to Top
Source Intact With
IntActSearch Q9FYK5
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT1G24590
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankAC0001030.0AC000103.2 Genomic sequence for Arabidopsis thaliana BAC F21J9 from chromosome I, complete sequence.
GenBankAY5608890.0AY560889.1 Arabidopsis thaliana putative AP2/EREBP transcription factor (At1g24590) mRNA, complete cds.
GenBankBT0260730.0BT026073.1 Arabidopsis thaliana At1g24590 mRNA, complete cds.
GenBankCP0026840.0CP002684.1 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 1 sequence.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_173864.10.0DORNROSCHEN-like protein
SwissprotQ9FYK50.0ESR2_ARATH; Ethylene-responsive transcription factor ESR2
STRINGAT1G24590.10.0(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Orthologous Group ? help Back to Top
LineageOrthologous Group IDTaxa NumberGene Number
Representative plantOGRP6161718
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Riechmann JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
    Science, 2000. 290(5499): p. 2105-10
  2. Kirch T,Simon R,Grünewald M,Werr W
    The DORNROSCHEN/ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION1 gene of Arabidopsis acts in the control of meristem ccll fate and lateral organ development.
    Plant Cell, 2003. 15(3): p. 694-705
  3. Ward JM, et al.
    A new role for the Arabidopsis AP2 transcription factor, LEAFY PETIOLE, in gibberellin-induced germination is revealed by the misexpression of a homologous gene, SOB2/DRN-LIKE.
    Plant Cell, 2006. 18(1): p. 29-39
  4. Nakano T,Suzuki K,Fujimura T,Shinshi H
    Genome-wide analysis of the ERF gene family in Arabidopsis and rice.
    Plant Physiol., 2006. 140(2): p. 411-32
  5. Ikeda Y,Banno H,Niu QW,Howell SH,Chua NH
    The ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION 2 gene in Arabidopsis regulates CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON 1 at the transcriptional level and controls cotyledon development.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2006. 47(11): p. 1443-56
  6. Chandler JW,Cole M,Flier A,Grewe B,Werr W
    The AP2 transcription factors DORNROSCHEN and DORNROSCHEN-LIKE redundantly control Arabidopsis embryo patterning via interaction with PHAVOLUTA.
    Development, 2007. 134(9): p. 1653-62
  7. Nag A,Yang Y,Jack T
    DORNROSCHEN-LIKE, an AP2 gene, is necessary for stamen emergence in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2007. 65(3): p. 219-32
  8. Skirycz A, et al.
    The DOF transcription factor OBP1 is involved in cell cycle regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant J., 2008. 56(5): p. 779-92
  9. Chandler JW,Cole M,Flier A,Werr W
    BIM1, a bHLH protein involved in brassinosteroid signalling, controls Arabidopsis embryonic patterning via interaction with DORNROSCHEN and DORNROSCHEN-LIKE.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2009. 69(1-2): p. 57-68
  10. Chandler JW,Cole M,Werr W
    The role of DORNROESCHEN (DRN) and DRN-LIKE (DRNL) in Arabidopsis embryonic patterning.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2008. 3(1): p. 49-51
  11. Cheon J,Park SY,Schulz B,Choe S
    Arabidopsis brassinosteroid biosynthetic mutant dwarf7-1 exhibits slower rates of cell division and shoot induction.
    BMC Plant Biol., 2010. 10: p. 270
  12. Chandler JW,Cole M,Jacobs B,Comelli P,Werr W
    Genetic integration of DORNR
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2011. 75(3): p. 223-36
  13. Chandler JW,Jacobs B,Cole M,Comelli P,Werr W
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2011. 76(1-2): p. 171-85
  14. Matsuo N,Makino M,Banno H
    Arabidopsis ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION (ESR)1 and ESR2 regulate in vitro shoot regeneration and their expressions are differentially regulated.
    Plant Sci., 2011. 181(1): p. 39-46
  15. Chandler JW,Werr W
    The role of Dornr
    Plant Signal Behav, 2011. 6(8): p. 1244-6
  16. Eklund DM, et al.
    Expression of Arabidopsis SHORT INTERNODES/STYLISH family genes in auxin biosynthesis zones of aerial organs is dependent on a GCC box-like regulatory element.
    Plant Physiol., 2011. 157(4): p. 2069-80
  17. Meinke DW
    A survey of dominant mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Trends Plant Sci., 2013. 18(2): p. 84-91
  18. Cole M, et al.
    Live imaging of DORNR
    Plant Cell Rep., 2013. 32(1): p. 45-59
  19. Chandler JW,Werr W
    Arabidopsis floral phytomer development: auxin response relative to biphasic modes of organ initiation.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2014. 65(12): p. 3097-110
  20. Jin J, et al.
    An Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulatory Map Reveals Distinct Functional and Evolutionary Features of Novel Transcription Factors.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2015. 32(7): p. 1767-73
  21. Thoma R,Chandler JW
    Polarity in the early floral meristem of Arabidopsis.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2015. 10(4): p. e992733
  22. Comelli P,Glowa D,Chandler JW,Werr W
    Founder-cell-specific transcription of the DORNRÖSCHEN-LIKE promoter and integration of the auxin response.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2016. 67(1): p. 143-55
  23. Seeliger I, et al.
    The AP2-type transcription factors DORNRÖSCHEN and DORNRÖSCHEN-LIKE promote G1/S transition.
    Mol. Genet. Genomics, 2016. 291(5): p. 1835-49
  24. Chandler JW,Werr W
    DORNRÖSCHEN, DORNRÖSCHEN-LIKE, and PUCHI redundantly control floral meristem identity and organ initiation in Arabidopsis.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2017. 68(13): p. 3457-3472
  25. Durán-Medina Y,Serwatowska J,Reyes-Olalde JI,de Folter S,Marsch-Martínez N
    The AP2/ERF Transcription Factor DRNL Modulates Gynoecium Development and Affects Its Response to Cytokinin.
    Front Plant Sci, 2017. 8: p. 1841