PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT1G15360.1
Common NameAtSHN1, ERF001, F9L1.31, SHN1, WIN1
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Family ERF
Protein Properties Length: 199aa    MW: 21696.3 Da    PI: 7.4449
Description ERF family protein
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT1G15360.1genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
          AP2  1 sgykGVrwdkkrgrWvAeIrdpsengkr..krfslgkfgtaeeAakaaiaarkkl 53
                 ++++GVr+++ +g+WvAeIr+p        +r++lg+f taeeAa+a+++a+  +
                 59*******9.**********8.....334*********************9765 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
CDDcd000187.48E-34563No hitNo description
SMARTSM003804.3E-40669IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
PROSITE profilePS5103222.155663IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
PfamPF008471.6E-12650IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
Gene3DG3DSA:3.30.730.104.4E-33664IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
SuperFamilySSF541713.2E-21665IPR016177DNA-binding domain
PRINTSPR003671.3E-10718IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
PRINTSPR003671.3E-102945IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0006355Biological Processregulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0009414Biological Processresponse to water deprivation
GO:0009873Biological Processethylene-activated signaling pathway
GO:0010143Biological Processcutin biosynthetic process
GO:0010166Biological Processwax metabolic process
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0003700Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0043565Molecular Functionsequence-specific DNA binding
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0000014anatomyrosette leaf
PO:0004707anatomyfruit dehiscence zone
PO:0004711anatomyaxillary inflorescence bud
PO:0009009anatomyplant embryo
PO:0025022anatomycollective leaf structure
PO:0001078developmental stageplant embryo cotyledonary stage
PO:0001081developmental stagemature plant embryo stage
PO:0004507developmental stageplant embryo bilateral stage
PO:0007611developmental stagepetal differentiation and expansion stage
PO:0007616developmental stageflowering stage
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 199 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
3D Structure ? help Back to Top
PDB ID Evalue Query Start Query End Hit Start Hit End Description
Search in ModeBase
Expression -- UniGene ? help Back to Top
UniGene ID E-value Expressed in
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
Expression AtlasAT1G15360-
Expression -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniprotDEVELOPMENTAL STAGE: Detected in sepals of very young closed buds. Later, expressed in sepals and petals veins and epidermis, as well as in developing gynoecium but not in stamens. At anthesis, confined to the gynoecium, commenced in the anther, and slightly expressed in the anther filament. When petals and sepals withered, strong expression at the bottom of the silique, in the abscission zone, and in the pedicel region below it. At silique maturity, detected in the same region but only at the nectaries. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15319479}.
UniprotTISSUE SPECIFICITY: Expressed in aerial organs, mostly in flowers, and in roots. Also observed at the branch points of pedicels of most young flowers, and in a patchy pattern in roots of mature plants and very young leaves in the rosette, including support cells of their trichomes. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15070782, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15319479}.
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIREncodes a member of the ERF (ethylene response factor) subfamily B-6 of ERF/AP2 transcription factor family. The protein contains one AP2 domain. There are 12 members in this subfamily including RAP2.11. This gene is involved in wax biosynthesis. Over-expression of the gene results in glossy leaf phenotype and increased drought tolerance. Two closely related genes, AT5G25390 and AT5G11190 have similar phenotypes when over-expressed. Strong expression levels in flowers. Binds to the promoter of LACS2.
UniProtPromotes cuticle formation by inducing the expression of enzymes involved in wax biosynthesis (PubMed:15070782, PubMed:15319479). Confers drought resistance (PubMed:15319479). Acts as a transcriptional activator. Binds to the GCC-box pathogenesis-related promoter element. May be involved in the regulation of gene expression by stress factors and by components of stress signal transduction pathways (By similarity). {ECO:0000250, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15070782, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15319479}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. At least one of the cutin pathway genes, which encodes long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase LACS2, is likely to be directly targeted by WIN1.
    [PMID: 17449808]
  2. Work identified WIN1, a putative acetylornithine transaminase, as Pseudomonas syringae HopW1-1-interacting plant proteins.
    [PMID: 18266921]
  3. Silencing SHINE clade genes (SHN1/SHN2/SHN3) reduces flower cutin load and modifies petal cell wall structure.
    [PMID: 21637781]
  4. when expression of the WIN1/SHN1 gene was induced there was increased expression of genes involved in wax development...
    [PMID: 22078383]
  5. Data indicate that the MIXTA-like MYB transcription factors MYB106 and MYB16, which regulate epidermal cell morphology, also regulate cuticle development coordinately with WIN1/SHN1.
    [PMID: 23709630]
  6. Overexpression of AtSHN1/WIN1 provokes unique defense responses.
    [PMID: 23922943]
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Target Genes) ? help Back to Top
Source Target Gene (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G01120(A), AT1G02205(A), AT4G24510(A)
Regulation -- Hormone ? help Back to Top
Source Hormone
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT1G15360
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankAK1179410.0AK117941.1 Arabidopsis thaliana At1g15360 mRNA for putative ethylene responsive element, complete cds, clone: RAFL19-13-G20.
GenBankAY3781010.0AY378101.1 Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor wax inducer 1 (WIN1) mRNA, complete cds.
GenBankBT0052200.0BT005220.1 Arabidopsis thaliana At1g15360 mRNA, complete cds.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_001322723.11e-144Integrase-type DNA-binding superfamily protein
RefseqNP_172988.11e-144Integrase-type DNA-binding superfamily protein
SwissprotQ9XI331e-145WIN1_ARATH; Ethylene-responsive transcription factor WIN1
STRINGAT1G15360.11e-143(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Orthologous Group ? help Back to Top
LineageOrthologous Group IDTaxa NumberGene Number
Representative plantOGRP6161718
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Riechmann JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
    Science, 2000. 290(5499): p. 2105-10
  2. Seki M, et al.
    Functional annotation of a full-length Arabidopsis cDNA collection.
    Science, 2002. 296(5565): p. 141-5
  3. Yamada K, et al.
    Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome.
    Science, 2003. 302(5646): p. 842-6
  4. Hu W,Wang Y,Bowers C,Ma H
    Isolation, sequence analysis, and expression studies of florally expressed cDNAs in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2003. 53(4): p. 545-63
  5. Broun P,Poindexter P,Osborne E,Jiang CZ,Riechmann JL
    WIN1, a transcriptional activator of epidermal wax accumulation in Arabidopsis.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2004. 101(13): p. 4706-11
  6. Aharoni A, et al.
    The SHINE clade of AP2 domain transcription factors activates wax biosynthesis, alters cuticle properties, and confers drought tolerance when overexpressed in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2004. 16(9): p. 2463-80
  7. Nakano T,Suzuki K,Fujimura T,Shinshi H
    Genome-wide analysis of the ERF gene family in Arabidopsis and rice.
    Plant Physiol., 2006. 140(2): p. 411-32
  8. Kurdyukov S, et al.
    The epidermis-specific extracellular BODYGUARD controls cuticle development and morphogenesis in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2006. 18(2): p. 321-39
  9. Mandaokar A, et al.
    Transcriptional regulators of stamen development in Arabidopsis identified by transcriptional profiling.
    Plant J., 2006. 46(6): p. 984-1008
  10. Cao D,Cheng H,Wu W,Soo HM,Peng J
    Gibberellin mobilizes distinct DELLA-dependent transcriptomes to regulate seed germination and floral development in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2006. 142(2): p. 509-25
  11. Kannangara R, et al.
    The transcription factor WIN1/SHN1 regulates Cutin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Cell, 2007. 19(4): p. 1278-94
  12. Lee MW,Jelenska J,Greenberg JT
    Arabidopsis proteins important for modulating defense responses to Pseudomonas syringae that secrete HopW1-1.
    Plant J., 2008. 54(3): p. 452-65
  13. Taketa S, et al.
    Barley grain with adhering hulls is controlled by an ERF family transcription factor gene regulating a lipid biosynthesis pathway.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2008. 105(10): p. 4062-7
  14. Kamigaki A,Kondo M,Mano S,Hayashi M,Nishimura M
    Suppression of peroxisome biogenesis factor 10 reduces cuticular wax accumulation by disrupting the ER network in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2009. 50(12): p. 2034-46
  15. Shi JX, et al.
    SHINE transcription factors act redundantly to pattern the archetypal surface of Arabidopsis flower organs.
    PLoS Genet., 2011. 7(5): p. e1001388
  16. Qin F, et al.
    SPINDLY, a negative regulator of gibberellic acid signaling, is involved in the plant abiotic stress response.
    Plant Physiol., 2011. 157(4): p. 1900-13
  17. Yang J,Isabel Ordiz M,Jaworski JG,Beachy RN
    Induced accumulation of cuticular waxes enhances drought tolerance in Arabidopsis by changes in development of stomata.
    Plant Physiol. Biochem., 2011. 49(12): p. 1448-55
  18. Wang Y, et al.
    An ethylene response factor OsWR1 responsive to drought stress transcriptionally activates wax synthesis related genes and increases wax production in rice.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2012. 78(3): p. 275-88
  19. Lisso J,Schr
    NFXL2 modifies cuticle properties in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2012. 7(5): p. 551-5
  20. Li-Beisson Y, et al.
    Acyl-lipid metabolism.
    Arabidopsis Book, 2013. 11: p. e0161
  21. Oshima Y, et al.
    MIXTA-like transcription factors and WAX INDUCER1/SHINE1 coordinately regulate cuticle development in Arabidopsis and Torenia fournieri.
    Plant Cell, 2013. 25(5): p. 1609-24
  22. Sela D, et al.
    Overexpression of AtSHN1/WIN1 provokes unique defense responses.
    PLoS ONE, 2013. 8(7): p. e70146
  23. Al-Abdallat AM,Al-Debei HS,Ayad JY,Hasan S
    Over-expression of SlSHN1 gene improves drought tolerance by increasing cuticular wax accumulation in tomato.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2014. 15(11): p. 19499-515
  24. Djemal R,Khoudi H
    Isolation and molecular characterization of a novel WIN1/SHN1 ethylene-responsive transcription factor TdSHN1 from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum. L. subsp. durum).
    Protoplasma, 2015. 252(6): p. 1461-73
  25. Jin J, et al.
    An Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulatory Map Reveals Distinct Functional and Evolutionary Features of Novel Transcription Factors.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2015. 32(7): p. 1767-73
  26. Sadler C, et al.
    Wax and cutin mutants of Arabidopsis: Quantitative characterization of the cuticular transport barrier in relation to chemical composition.
    Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 2016. 1861(9 Pt B): p. 1336-1344
  27. Sajeevan RS, et al.
    Expression of Arabidopsis SHN1 in Indian Mulberry (Morus indica L.) Increases Leaf Surface Wax Content and Reduces Post-harvest Water Loss.
    Front Plant Sci, 2017. 8: p. 418
  28. Riechmann JL,Meyerowitz EM
    The AP2/EREBP family of plant transcription factors.
    Biol. Chem., 1998. 379(6): p. 633-46