PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT1G14350.2
Common NameAtMYB124, FLP, MYB124
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Family MYB
Protein Properties Length: 436aa    MW: 49599.6 Da    PI: 6.8758
Description MYB family protein
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT1G14350.2genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
  Myb_DNA-binding  3 rWTteEdellvdavkqlGggtWktIartmgkgRtlkqcksrwqkyl 48
                      W++eEd +l + ++++G+++W+ Ia+++   ++  qc+ rw++yl
                     6****************************9.*************97 PP

  Myb_DNA-binding   1 rgrWTteEdellvdavkqlGggtWktIartmgkgRtlkqcksrwqk 46 
                      rg W++eEd ll +a + +G++ W+ Ia+ +  gRt++ +k+r+ +
                      789*******************.*********.**********976 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
PROSITE profilePS5129415.2532071IPR017930Myb domain
SMARTSM007173.1E-122473IPR001005SANT/Myb domain
CDDcd001671.41E-112771No hitNo description
PfamPF139211.3E-142888No hitNo description
PROSITE profilePS5129419.92372126IPR017930Myb domain
SMARTSM007172.0E-1476124IPR001005SANT/Myb domain
CDDcd001672.78E-1080121No hitNo description
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0006357Biological Processregulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter
GO:0009553Biological Processembryo sac development
GO:0010052Biological Processguard cell differentiation
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0000981Molecular FunctionRNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0001135Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, RNA polymerase II transcription factor recruiting
GO:0043565Molecular Functionsequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0044212Molecular Functiontranscription regulatory region DNA binding
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0000013anatomycauline leaf
PO:0000037anatomyshoot apex
PO:0000230anatomyinflorescence meristem
PO:0000293anatomyguard cell
PO:0000351anatomyguard mother cell
PO:0008019anatomyleaf lamina base
PO:0009006anatomyshoot system
PO:0009009anatomyplant embryo
PO:0009025anatomyvascular leaf
PO:0009052anatomyflower pedicel
PO:0020137anatomyleaf apex
PO:0025022anatomycollective leaf structure
PO:0001054developmental stagevascular leaf senescent stage
PO:0001078developmental stageplant embryo cotyledonary stage
PO:0001081developmental stagemature plant embryo stage
PO:0001185developmental stageplant embryo globular stage
PO:0004507developmental stageplant embryo bilateral stage
PO:0007095developmental stageLP.08 eight leaves visible stage
PO:0007098developmental stageLP.02 two leaves visible stage
PO:0007103developmental stageLP.10 ten leaves visible stage
PO:0007115developmental stageLP.04 four leaves visible stage
PO:0007123developmental stageLP.06 six leaves visible stage
PO:0007611developmental stagepetal differentiation and expansion stage
PO:0007616developmental stageflowering stage
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 436 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
3D Structure ? help Back to Top
PDB ID Evalue Query Start Query End Hit Start Hit End Description
Search in ModeBase
Expression -- UniGene ? help Back to Top
UniGene ID E-value Expressed in
At.120410.0bud| flower| root
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
Expression AtlasAT1G14350-
Expression -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniprotDEVELOPMENTAL STAGE: Expressed at the transition to terminal stomatal differentiation, just before and after the symmetric division of stomatal differentiation, being confined to late-stage guard mother cells (GMC) and to young, still differentiating guard cells (PubMed:16155180, PubMed:24571519). Detected in unopened flower buds, at the bases of sepals, petals, and stamens and in the receptacle of carpels, as well as both in style and stigma. Present at strong levels in the placenta within the ovary. Accumulates during ovule development in a dynamic pattern; first observed at high levels in the funiculus once integument outgrowth has begun and persists into later stages. Also expressed in the nucellus of younger ovules, especially in the megaspore mother cell (MMC) and in epidermal cells. Present in integuments, in the endothelial layer and the outer layer of the outer integument, which will form the mucilage-containing seed coat cells (PubMed:22915737). In developing embryos, first detected in cells in the ground tissue meristem at the early heart stage accumulates in the torpedo stage. In mature embryos, expressed in the embryonic hypocotyl and root tip. In seedlings, present first in the lower part of the hypocotyl and in the root tip, and later in petioles of cotyledons, young leaves, and lateral root primordia, near the pericycle. In young plants, strongly expressed in petioles of young leaves and cotyledons, especially in veins, in the basal part of young first leaves and cotyledons, and in root tips of lateral roots. Detected in the phloem, as well as in the cortex of inflorescence stems (PubMed:26391711). In roots, present in the root tip in columella cells, specifically in the lower tier of columella cells, as well as in developing metaxylem (PubMed:26391711, PubMed:26578169). Widely expressed in freshly emerged lateral roots. In elongating lateral roots, confined at high levels transiently in columella cells until differentiation (PubMed:26578169). Expressed at the base of developing flowers, including ovaries. In flowers, detected in ovaries, receptacles, and transiently, in anthers, and, later, in filaments. Also detected in the valve margins and receptacles of siliques and at the joint between the stigma and the style, as well as in the tapetum around pollen grains in maturing anthers (PubMed:26391711). {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16155180, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22915737, ECO:0000269|PubMed:24571519, ECO:0000269|PubMed:26391711, ECO:0000269|PubMed:26578169}.
UniprotTISSUE SPECIFICITY: Expressed in all shoot organs with higher levels in leaves, stems, flowers, siliques and floral buds. Also detected in roots tips. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16155180, ECO:0000269|PubMed:26391711}.
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIREncodes a putative MYB transcription factor involved in stomata development, loss of FLP activity results in a failure of guard mother cells (GMCs) to adopt the guard cell fate, thus they continue to divide resulting in abnormal stomata consisting of clusters of numerous guard cell-like cells. This phenotype is enhanced in double mutants with MYB88.
UniProtTranscription factor that binds to DNA in promoters cis-regulatory element 5'-GGCGCGC-3' of cell cycle genes, including cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and components of the pre-replication complex (PubMed:20675570, PubMed:24687979). Binds to DNA in promoters cis-regulatory element 5'-AGCCG-3' of auxin regulated genes (e.g. PIN3 and PIN7) (PubMed:26578169). Together with FAMA and MYB88, ensures that stomata contain just two guard cells (GCs) by enforcing a single symmetric precursor cell division before stomatal maturity (PubMed:24571519). Represses the expression of the mitosis-inducing factors CDKB1-1 and CDKA-1, specifically required for the last guard mother cells (GMC) symmetric divisions in the stomatal pathway (PubMed:20675570, PubMed:24687979). Represses CYCA2-3 in newly formed guard cells (PubMed:21772250). Together with MYB88, regulates stomata spacing by restricting divisions late in the stomatal cell lineage thus limiting the number of GMC divisions (PubMed:11536724, PubMed:9684356, PubMed:16155180, PubMed:24123248). In collaboration with CDKB1-1 and CDKB1-2, restrict the G1/S transition and chloroplast and nuclear number during stomatal formation, and normally maintain fate and developmental progression throughout the stomatal cell lineage (PubMed:24123248). Also involved in the shape regulation of pavement cells (PubMed:9684356). Involved in sensing and/or transducing abiotic stress (e.g. drought and salt), probably via the positive regulation of NAC019 (PubMed:21105921). Regulates female reproduction being required for entry into megasporogenesis, probably via the regulation of cell cycle genes (PubMed:22915737). Promotes histone H3K27me3 marks and represses stem cell gene expression (PubMed:24654956). Required for lateral roots (LRs) initiation via the regulation of PIN3 expression in an auxin-dependent manner (PubMed:26578065). Involved in responses to gravity stimulation in primary roots by regulating the transcription of PIN3 and PIN7 in gravity-sensing cells, thus modulating auxin asymmetric redistribution (PubMed:26578169). {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11536724, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16155180, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20675570, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21105921, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21772250, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22915737, ECO:0000269|PubMed:24123248, ECO:0000269|PubMed:24571519, ECO:0000269|PubMed:24654956, ECO:0000269|PubMed:24687979, ECO:0000269|PubMed:26578065, ECO:0000269|PubMed:26578169, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9684356}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. targets. FLP recognizes a distinct cis-regulatory element that overlaps with that of the cell cycle activator E2F-DP in the CDKB1;1 promoter, suggesting that these MYBs may also modulate E2F-DP pathways
    [PMID: 20675570]
  2. flp-1 myb88 double mutant plants show enhanced sensitivity to drought and salt stress.
    [PMID: 21105921]
  3. FLP and MYB88 are important regulators of entry into megasporogenesis, and probably act via the regulation of cell cycle genes.
    [PMID: 22915737]
  4. FLP and MYB88 restrict the G1/S transition during stomatal formation.
    [PMID: 24123248]
  5. Data indicate that MYB transcription factor FOUR LIPS (FLP) and bHLH transcription factor FAMA complement respective mutant phenotypes.
    [PMID: 24571519]
  6. Data indicate that bHLH transcription factor FAMA and MYB transcription factor FOUR LIPS (FLP) genes stabilize guard cell fate.
    [PMID: 24654956]
  7. Both flp and myb88 genes were expressed in many, previously unreported locations, consistent with the possibility of additional functions for FLP and MYB88. Moreover, expression domains especially of FLP display sharp cutoffs or boundaries.
    [PMID: 26391711]
  8. ARF7 and FLP transcription factors jointly form a coherent feed-forward motif that mediates the auxin-responsive PIN3 transcription in planta to steer the early steps of lateral root formation.
    [PMID: 26578065]
  9. FLP and MYB88 expression specifically determines the temporal-spatial patterns of PIN3 and PIN7 transcription that are closely associated with their preferential functions during root responses to gravity.
    [PMID: 26578169]
  10. FLP and MYB88 inhibit the production of nonstomatal epidermal cells largely in a growth-condition-dependent manner.
    [PMID: 27620181]
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
Regulation -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtINDUCTION: Strongly induced by auxin in a IAA14/SLR1 and ARF7 dependent manner, especially in xylem pole pericycle cells, lateral roots initiating cells. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:26578065}.
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Target Genes) ? help Back to Top
Source Target Gene (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT3G54180(R), AT4G34160(A)
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT1G14350
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankAF3719820.0AF371982.2 Arabidopsis thaliana putative transcription factor MYB124 (MYB124) mRNA, complete cds.
GenBankBT0261260.0BT026126.1 Arabidopsis thaliana.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_001077534.10.0Duplicated homeodomain-like superfamily protein
RefseqNP_563948.10.0Duplicated homeodomain-like superfamily protein
SwissprotQ94FL60.0MY124_ARATH; Transcription factor MYB124
TrEMBLA0A178W3Z30.0A0A178W3Z3_ARATH; MYB124
STRINGAT1G14350.20.0(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Riechmann JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
    Science, 2000. 290(5499): p. 2105-10
  2. Yang M,Sack FD
    The too many mouths and four lips mutations affect stomatal production in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 1995. 7(12): p. 2227-39
  3. Stracke R,Werber M,Weisshaar B
    The R2R3-MYB gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol., 2001. 4(5): p. 447-56
  4. von Groll U,Altmann T
    Stomatal cell biology.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol., 2001. 4(6): p. 555-60
  5. Von Groll U,Berger D,Altmann T
    The subtilisin-like serine protease SDD1 mediates cell-to-cell signaling during Arabidopsis stomatal development.
    Plant Cell, 2002. 14(7): p. 1527-39
  6. Dewitte W, et al.
    Altered cell cycle distribution, hyperplasia, and inhibited differentiation in Arabidopsis caused by the D-type cyclin CYCD3.
    Plant Cell, 2003. 15(1): p. 79-92
  7. Lai LB, et al.
    The Arabidopsis R2R3 MYB proteins FOUR LIPS and MYB88 restrict divisions late in the stomatal cell lineage.
    Plant Cell, 2005. 17(10): p. 2754-67
  8. Duarte JM, et al.
    Expression pattern shifts following duplication indicative of subfunctionalization and neofunctionalization in regulatory genes of Arabidopsis.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2006. 23(2): p. 469-78
  9. Ascencio-Ib
    Global analysis of Arabidopsis gene expression uncovers a complex array of changes impacting pathogen response and cell cycle during geminivirus infection.
    Plant Physiol., 2008. 148(1): p. 436-54
  10. Xie Z, et al.
    Regulation of cell proliferation in the stomatal lineage by the Arabidopsis MYB FOUR LIPS via direct targeting of core cell cycle genes.
    Plant Cell, 2010. 22(7): p. 2306-21
  11. Xie Z,Li D,Wang L,Sack FD,Grotewold E
    Role of the stomatal development regulators FLP/MYB88 in abiotic stress responses.
    Plant J., 2010. 64(5): p. 731-9
  12. Vanneste S, et al.
    Developmental regulation of CYCA2s contributes to tissue-specific proliferation in Arabidopsis.
    EMBO J., 2011. 30(16): p. 3430-41
  13. Nadeau JA,Sack FD
    Stomatal development in Arabidopsis.
    Arabidopsis Book, 2002. 1: p. e0066
  14. Makkena S,Lee E,Sack FD,Lamb RS
    The R2R3 MYB transcription factors FOUR LIPS and MYB88 regulate female reproductive development.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2012. 63(15): p. 5545-58
  15. Lee E,Liu X,Eglit Y,Sack F
    FOUR LIPS and MYB88 conditionally restrict the G1/S transition during stomatal formation.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2013. 64(16): p. 5207-19
  16. Ding Y, et al.
    Four distinct types of dehydration stress memory genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    BMC Plant Biol., 2013. 13: p. 229
  17. Lee E,Lucas JR,Sack FD
    Deep functional redundancy between FAMA and FOUR LIPS in stomatal development.
    Plant J., 2014. 78(4): p. 555-65
  18. Lee E,Lucas JR,Goodrich J,Sack FD
    Arabidopsis guard cell integrity involves the epigenetic stabilization of the FLP and FAMA transcription factor genes.
    Plant J., 2014. 78(4): p. 566-77
  19. Yang K, et al.
    Requirement for A-type cyclin-dependent kinase and cyclins for the terminal division in the stomatal lineage of Arabidopsis.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2014. 65(9): p. 2449-61
  20. Jin J, et al.
    An Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulatory Map Reveals Distinct Functional and Evolutionary Features of Novel Transcription Factors.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2015. 32(7): p. 1767-73
  21. Lei Q, et al.
    The FOUR LIPS and MYB88 transcription factor genes are widely expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana during development.
    Am. J. Bot., 2015. 102(9): p. 1521-8
  22. Chen Q, et al.
    A coherent transcriptional feed-forward motif model for mediating auxin-sensitive PIN3 expression during lateral root development.
    Nat Commun, 2015. 6: p. 8821
  23. Wang HZ, et al.
    Transcriptional regulation of PIN genes by FOUR LIPS and MYB88 during Arabidopsis root gravitropism.
    Nat Commun, 2015. 6: p. 8822
  24. Yang M
    The FOUR LIPS (FLP) and MYB88 genes conditionally suppress the production of nonstomatal epidermal cells in Arabidopsis cotyledons.
    Am. J. Bot., 2016. 103(9): p. 1559-66
  25. Xie Y, et al.
    An atypical R2R3 MYB transcription factor increases cold hardiness by CBF-dependent and CBF-independent pathways in apple.
    New Phytol., 2018. 218(1): p. 201-218
  26. Serna L,Fenoll C
    Tracing the ontogeny of stomatal clusters in Arabidopsis with molecular markers.
    Plant J., 1997. 12(4): p. 747-55
  27. Geisler M,Yang M,Sack FD
    Divergent regulation of stomatal initiation and patterning in organ and suborgan regions of the Arabidopsis mutants too many mouths and four lips.
    Planta, 1998. 205(4): p. 522-30