PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT1G12980.1
Common NameDRN, ERF089, ESR1, F3F19.1
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Family ERF
Protein Properties Length: 328aa    MW: 36319.1 Da    PI: 9.0825
Description ERF family protein
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT1G12980.1genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
          AP2   1 sgykGVrwdkkrgrWvAeIrdpsengkr.krfslgkfgtaeeAakaaiaarkkleg 55 
                  ++y+GVr+++ +gr++AeIrdp     +  r +lg+f+tae+Aa a++ a+++++g
                  68********.**********84....35999*********************998 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
CDDcd000182.93E-2955112No hitNo description
PfamPF008477.5E-1055105IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
SuperFamilySSF541715.1E-2156114IPR016177DNA-binding domain
Gene3DG3DSA:3.30.730.104.2E-2956113IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
PROSITE profilePS5103222.58956113IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
SMARTSM003809.6E-3256119IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
PRINTSPR003673.0E-95768IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
PRINTSPR003673.0E-97995IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0006355Biological Processregulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0009734Biological Processauxin-activated signaling pathway
GO:0009735Biological Processresponse to cytokinin
GO:0009736Biological Processcytokinin-activated signaling pathway
GO:0009873Biological Processethylene-activated signaling pathway
GO:0009880Biological Processembryonic pattern specification
GO:0010084Biological Processspecification of organ axis polarity
GO:0048825Biological Processcotyledon development
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0005829Cellular Componentcytosol
GO:0003677Molecular FunctionDNA binding
GO:0003700Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0005515Molecular Functionprotein binding
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0000001anatomyplant embryo proper
PO:0006362anatomyembryo shoot apical meristem
PO:0009009anatomyplant embryo
PO:0001185developmental stageplant embryo globular stage
PO:0004507developmental stageplant embryo bilateral stage
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 328 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
3D Structure ? help Back to Top
PDB ID Evalue Query Start Query End Hit Start Hit End Description
5wx9_A4e-1949112771Ethylene-responsive transcription factor ERF096
Search in ModeBase
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID
Expression AtlasAT1G12980
Expression -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniprotDEVELOPMENTAL STAGE: First observed in the embryo at four-cell stage. At the globular stage, localized in cotyledons primordia. Later confined to embryonic cotyledons tips. Expressed from embryogenesis onward in the central zone of the shoot apical and floral meristems, in organ anlagen, and (transiently) in the distal domains of organ primordia. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12615942, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17376809}.
UniprotTISSUE SPECIFICITY: Expressed in shoot apical and floral meristems, and in organ primordia. Transient expression during shoot regeneration. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11752375, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12615942, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17376809}.
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIREncodes an AP2/ERF protein, is expressed in a subdomain of meristem stem cells, in lateral organ anlagen, and transiently in the distal domain of organ primordia. It is a member of the ERF (ethylene response factor) subfamily B-1 of ERF/AP2 transcription factor family (ESR1). The protein contains one AP2 domain. There are 15 members in this subfamily including ATERF-3, ATERF-4, ATERF-7, and leafy petiole. Can confer cytokinin-independent shoot formation and causes severe meristem defects when overexpressed in Arabidopsis root explants. Involved in controlling embryogenesis and embryo patterning by interaction with PHAVOLUTA.
UniProtRegulates gene expression patterns in meristems and thus modulates organ development. Required for correct embryo patterning and cotyledon organogenesis. Modulates auxin signaling pathway in early embryos. Involved in the cytokinin signaling pathway that promotes shoot regeneration. Acts as a transcriptional activator. Binds to the GCC-box pathogenesis-related promoter element. May be involved in the regulation of gene expression by stress factors and by components of stress signal transduction pathways (By similarity). {ECO:0000250, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11752375, ECO:0000269|PubMed:12615942, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17376809}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. Drn Drnl double mutants with weak or strong drnl alleles show more highly penetrant and extreme phenotypes, including a pin-like embryo without cotyledons, confirming a high degree of functional redundancy for the two genes in embryo patterning.
    [PMID: 17376809]
  2. while overexpression of ESR1 fused with a strong repression domain, SRDX, inhibited shoot regeneration. These results suggest that ESR1 induces shoot regeneration through its transactivating ability
    [PMID: 18771931]
  3. interaction of BIM1 with DRN, involved with auxin signalling, represents a possible point of hormonal crosstalk in embryonic patterning and the first example of an interaction of components of the auxin and BR signalling pathways
    [PMID: 18830673]
  4. MP binds in vivo to two AuxRE-spanning fragments in the DRN promoter; MP is required for expression of DRN in cotyledon tips. Hence, DRN represents a direct target of MP and functions downstream of MP in cotyledon development
    [PMID: 19369397]
  5. DRN and DRNL act cell-autonomously and are co-expressed in the early globular embryo, whereas expression patterns diverge during later stages of embryogeny
    [PMID: 21161330]
  6. ESR1 is expressed both prior to and during shoot formation, whereas ESR2 is expressed only during shoot formation.
    [PMID: 21600396]
  7. Although DRN and DRNL transgenic lines are both activated in surface cells, their promoter activity marks different cell identities.
    [PMID: 23011125]
  8. These results define new roles for KH-domain containing proteins with ESR1 unlinking jasmonic acid-mediated growth and defense responses.
    [PMID: 25985302]
  9. Study shows that DRN and DRNL promote cell proliferation, most probably via the G1-S transition.
    [PMID: 27277595]
  10. WIND1 directly binds the ESR1 promoter and activates tts expression.
    [PMID: 28011694]
  11. The combined loss of function of DORNROSCHEN, DORNROSCHEN-LIKE, and PUCHI leads to synergistic floral phenotypes, including reduced floral merosity in all whorls, which reflects redundant functions of all three genes in organ initiation rather than outgrowth.
    [PMID: 28859377]
  12. Auxin signaling in stem cells is mediated, at least in part, by AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 5/MONOPTEROS (ARF5/MP), which directly represses the transcription of DORNROSCHEN/ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION 1 (DRN/ESR1). DRN expressed in stem cells positively regulates CLAVATA3 (CLV3) expression and has important meristematic functions.
    [PMID: 29730265]
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
Regulation -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtINDUCTION: By cytokinins. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11752375}.
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Upstream Regulators) ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G19850 (A)
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Target Genes) ? help Back to Top
Source Target Gene (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT2G17950(A), AT2G27250(A)
Regulation -- Hormone ? help Back to Top
Source Hormone
AHDauxin, Brassinosteroid, cytokinin
Interaction ? help Back to Top
Source Intact With
BioGRIDAT1G14920, AT1G24590, AT1G30490
IntActSearch Q9SAD4
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT1G12980
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankCP0026840.0CP002684.1 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 1 sequence.
GenBankF3F190.0AC007357.2 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 1 BAC F3F19 sequence, complete sequence.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_172758.10.0Integrase-type DNA-binding superfamily protein
SwissprotQ9SAD40.0ESR1_ARATH; Ethylene-responsive transcription factor ESR1
STRINGAT1G12980.10.0(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Orthologous Group ? help Back to Top
LineageOrthologous Group IDTaxa NumberGene Number
Representative plantOGRP6161718
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Riechmann JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
    Science, 2000. 290(5499): p. 2105-10
  2. Eckardt NA, et al.
    Arabidopsis research 2001.
    Plant Cell, 2001. 13(9): p. 1973-82
  3. Banno H,Ikeda Y,Niu QW,Chua NH
    Overexpression of Arabidopsis ESR1 induces initiation of shoot regeneration.
    Plant Cell, 2001. 13(12): p. 2609-18
  4. Kirch T,Simon R,Grünewald M,Werr W
    The DORNROSCHEN/ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION1 gene of Arabidopsis acts in the control of meristem ccll fate and lateral organ development.
    Plant Cell, 2003. 15(3): p. 694-705
  5. Nakano T,Suzuki K,Fujimura T,Shinshi H
    Genome-wide analysis of the ERF gene family in Arabidopsis and rice.
    Plant Physiol., 2006. 140(2): p. 411-32
  6. Zimmermann R,Werr W
    Transcription of the putative maize orthologue of the Arabidopsis DORNROSCHEN gene marks early asymmetry in the proembryo and during leaf initiation in the shoot apical meristem.
    Gene Expr. Patterns, 2007. 7(1-2): p. 158-64
  7. Lim TS,Chitra TR,Han P,Pua EC,Yu H
    Cloning and characterization of Arabidopsis and Brassica juncea flavin-containing amine oxidases.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2006. 57(15): p. 4155-69
  8. Chandler JW,Cole M,Flier A,Grewe B,Werr W
    The AP2 transcription factors DORNROSCHEN and DORNROSCHEN-LIKE redundantly control Arabidopsis embryo patterning via interaction with PHAVOLUTA.
    Development, 2007. 134(9): p. 1653-62
  9. Matsuo N,Banno H
    The Arabidopsis transcription factor ESR1 induces in vitro shoot regeneration through transcriptional activation.
    Plant Physiol. Biochem., 2008. 46(12): p. 1045-50
  10. Chandler JW,Cole M,Flier A,Werr W
    BIM1, a bHLH protein involved in brassinosteroid signalling, controls Arabidopsis embryonic patterning via interaction with DORNROSCHEN and DORNROSCHEN-LIKE.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2009. 69(1-2): p. 57-68
  11. Cole M, et al.
    DORNROSCHEN is a direct target of the auxin response factor MONOPTEROS in the Arabidopsis embryo.
    Development, 2009. 136(10): p. 1643-51
  12. Chandler JW,Cole M,Werr W
    The role of DORNROESCHEN (DRN) and DRN-LIKE (DRNL) in Arabidopsis embryonic patterning.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2008. 3(1): p. 49-51
  13. Chandler JW,Cole M,Jacobs B,Comelli P,Werr W
    Genetic integration of DORNR
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2011. 75(3): p. 223-36
  14. Chandler JW,Jacobs B,Cole M,Comelli P,Werr W
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2011. 76(1-2): p. 171-85
  15. Matsuo N,Makino M,Banno H
    Arabidopsis ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION (ESR)1 and ESR2 regulate in vitro shoot regeneration and their expressions are differentially regulated.
    Plant Sci., 2011. 181(1): p. 39-46
  16. Eklund DM, et al.
    Expression of Arabidopsis SHORT INTERNODES/STYLISH family genes in auxin biosynthesis zones of aerial organs is dependent on a GCC box-like regulatory element.
    Plant Physiol., 2011. 157(4): p. 2069-80
  17. Meinke DW
    A survey of dominant mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Trends Plant Sci., 2013. 18(2): p. 84-91
  18. Cole M, et al.
    Live imaging of DORNR
    Plant Cell Rep., 2013. 32(1): p. 45-59
  19. Mar
    Large-scale identification of gibberellin-related transcription factors defines group VII ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTORS as functional DELLA partners.
    Plant Physiol., 2014. 166(2): p. 1022-32
  20. Jin J, et al.
    An Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulatory Map Reveals Distinct Functional and Evolutionary Features of Novel Transcription Factors.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2015. 32(7): p. 1767-73
  21. Thatcher LF,Kamphuis LG,Hane JK,O
    The Arabidopsis KH-Domain RNA-Binding Protein ESR1 Functions in Components of Jasmonate Signalling, Unlinking Growth Restraint and Resistance to Stress.
    PLoS ONE, 2015. 10(5): p. e0126978
  22. Seeliger I, et al.
    The AP2-type transcription factors DORNRÖSCHEN and DORNRÖSCHEN-LIKE promote G1/S transition.
    Mol. Genet. Genomics, 2016. 291(5): p. 1835-49
  23. Iwase A, et al.
    WIND1 Promotes Shoot Regeneration through Transcriptional Activation of ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION1 in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2017. 29(1): p. 54-69
  24. Capua Y,Eshed Y
    Coordination of auxin-triggered leaf initiation by tomato LEAFLESS.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2017. 114(12): p. 3246-3251
  25. Chandler JW,Werr W
    DORNRÖSCHEN, DORNRÖSCHEN-LIKE, and PUCHI redundantly control floral meristem identity and organ initiation in Arabidopsis.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2017. 68(13): p. 3457-3472
  26. Luo L,Zeng J,Wu H,Tian Z,Zhao Z
    A Molecular Framework for Auxin-Controlled Homeostasis of Shoot Stem Cells in Arabidopsis.
    Mol Plant, 2018. 11(7): p. 899-913