PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT1G12610.1
Common NameDDF1, DREB1F, ERF033, T12C24.14
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Family ERF
Protein Properties Length: 209aa    MW: 23616.5 Da    PI: 5.009
Description ERF family protein
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT1G12610.1genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
          AP2  1 sgykGVrwdkkrgrWvAeIrdpsengkr..krfslgkfgtaeeAakaaiaarkkleg 55
                 + y+G+r++    +Wv+e+r+p     +  +r++lg++ ta++Aa+a++ a ++l+g
                 68*****877.9*********8.....336*************************98 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
PfamPF008472.6E-102878IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
SuperFamilySSF541713.66E-192988IPR016177DNA-binding domain
PROSITE profilePS5103221.5622986IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
Gene3DG3DSA:3.30.730.102.5E-282988IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
SMARTSM003806.5E-232992IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
CDDcd000183.02E-253088No hitNo description
PRINTSPR003673.3E-73041IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
PRINTSPR003673.3E-75268IPR001471AP2/ERF domain
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0006355Biological Processregulation of transcription, DNA-templated
GO:0009408Biological Processresponse to heat
GO:0009414Biological Processresponse to water deprivation
GO:0009651Biological Processresponse to salt stress
GO:0010371Biological Processregulation of gibberellin biosynthetic process
GO:0016049Biological Processcell growth
GO:0048510Biological Processregulation of timing of transition from vegetative to reproductive phase
GO:0050826Biological Processresponse to freezing
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0003700Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0043565Molecular Functionsequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0044212Molecular Functiontranscription regulatory region DNA binding
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0000037anatomyshoot apex
PO:0000293anatomyguard cell
PO:0009025anatomyvascular leaf
PO:0009052anatomyflower pedicel
PO:0020137anatomyleaf apex
PO:0007095developmental stageLP.08 eight leaves visible stage
PO:0007103developmental stageLP.10 ten leaves visible stage
PO:0007611developmental stagepetal differentiation and expansion stage
PO:0007616developmental stageflowering stage
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 209 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
Expression -- UniGene ? help Back to Top
UniGene ID E-value Expressed in
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
Expression AtlasAT1G12610-
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIREncodes a member of the DREB subfamily A-1 of ERF/AP2 transcription factor family (DDF1). The protein contains one AP2 domain. There are six members in this subfamily, including CBF1, CBF2, and CBF3. Overexpression of this gene results in delayed flowering and dwarfism, reduction of gibberellic acid biosynthesis, and increased tolerance to high levels of salt. This gene is expressed in all tissues examined, but most abundantly expressed in upper stems. Overexpression of this gene is also correlated with increased expression of GA biosynthetic genes and RD29A (a cold and drought responsive gene). Under salt stress it induces the expression of GAOX7, which encodes ad C20-GA inhibitor.
UniProtTranscriptional activator that binds specifically to the DNA sequence 5'-[AG]CCGAC-3'. Binding to the C-repeat/DRE element mediates cold or dehydration-inducible transcription. CBF/DREB1 factors play a key role in freezing tolerance and cold acclimation. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11798174}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. DDF1 upregulates GA2ox7 under high-salinity stress and causes gibberellin deficiency in DDF1-overexpressing plants.
    [PMID: 18643985]
  2. DDF1 has a role regulating responses to several abiotic stresses.
    [PMID: 21421412]
  3. Data indicate that both transcription factors DWARF AND DELAYED FLOWERING1 (DDF1) and DDF2 are under selective constraint.
    [PMID: 26103993]
Binding Motif ? help Back to Top
Motif ID Method Source Motif file
Motif logo
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
Regulation -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtINDUCTION: By high-salt stress. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:11798174}.
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Target Genes) ? help Back to Top
Source Target Gene (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G50960(A), AT2G42540(A), AT5G17490(A), AT5G52310(R)
Regulation -- Hormone ? help Back to Top
Source Hormone
AHDethylene, gibberellin
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT1G12610
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankAC0254170.0AC025417.4 Genomic sequence for Arabidopsis thaliana BAC T12C24 from chromosome I, complete sequence.
GenBankAK2281940.0AK228194.1 Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for hypothetical protein, complete cds, clone: RAFL14-63-M15.
GenBankAY5608920.0AY560892.1 Arabidopsis thaliana putative AP2/EREBP transcription factor (At1g12610) mRNA, complete cds.
GenBankCP0026840.0CP002684.1 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 1 sequence.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_172721.11e-154Integrase-type DNA-binding superfamily protein
SwissprotQ9LN861e-155DRE1F_ARATH; Dehydration-responsive element-binding protein 1F
STRINGAT1G12610.11e-154(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Orthologous Group ? help Back to Top
LineageOrthologous Group IDTaxa NumberGene Number
Representative plantOGRP6161718
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Riechmann JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
    Science, 2000. 290(5499): p. 2105-10
  2. Sakuma Y, et al.
    DNA-binding specificity of the ERF/AP2 domain of Arabidopsis DREBs, transcription factors involved in dehydration- and cold-inducible gene expression.
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2002. 290(3): p. 998-1009
  3. Haake V, et al.
    Transcription factor CBF4 is a regulator of drought adaptation in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2002. 130(2): p. 639-48
  4. Magome H,Yamaguchi S,Hanada A,Kamiya Y,Oda K
    dwarf and delayed-flowering 1, a novel Arabidopsis mutant deficient in gibberellin biosynthesis because of overexpression of a putative AP2 transcription factor.
    Plant J., 2004. 37(5): p. 720-9
  5. Suzuki N, et al.
    Enhanced tolerance to environmental stress in transgenic plants expressing the transcriptional coactivator multiprotein bridging factor 1c.
    Plant Physiol., 2005. 139(3): p. 1313-22
  6. Nakano T,Suzuki K,Fujimura T,Shinshi H
    Genome-wide analysis of the ERF gene family in Arabidopsis and rice.
    Plant Physiol., 2006. 140(2): p. 411-32
  7. Xiong Y,Fei SZ
    Functional and phylogenetic analysis of a DREB/CBF-like gene in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.).
    Planta, 2006. 224(4): p. 878-88
  8. Ko JH,Yang SH,Han KH
    Upregulation of an Arabidopsis RING-H2 gene, XERICO, confers drought tolerance through increased abscisic acid biosynthesis.
    Plant J., 2006. 47(3): p. 343-55
  9. Osuna D, et al.
    Temporal responses of transcripts, enzyme activities and metabolites after adding sucrose to carbon-deprived Arabidopsis seedlings.
    Plant J., 2007. 49(3): p. 463-91
  10. Geddy R,Brown GG
    Genes encoding pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are not conserved in location in plant genomes and may be subject to diversifying selection.
    BMC Genomics, 2007. 8: p. 130
  11. Cartagena JA, et al.
    The Arabidopsis SDG4 contributes to the regulation of pollen tube growth by methylation of histone H3 lysines 4 and 36 in mature pollen.
    Dev. Biol., 2008. 315(2): p. 355-68
  12. Welling A,Palva ET
    Involvement of CBF transcription factors in winter hardiness in birch.
    Plant Physiol., 2008. 147(3): p. 1199-211
  13. Magome H,Yamaguchi S,Hanada A,Kamiya Y,Oda K
    The DDF1 transcriptional activator upregulates expression of a gibberellin-deactivating gene, GA2ox7, under high-salinity stress in Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2008. 56(4): p. 613-26
  14. Abercrombie JM, et al.
    Transcriptional responses of Arabidopsis thaliana plants to As (V) stress.
    BMC Plant Biol., 2008. 8: p. 87
  15. Khandelwal A,Elvitigala T,Ghosh B,Quatrano RS
    Arabidopsis transcriptome reveals control circuits regulating redox homeostasis and the role of an AP2 transcription factor.
    Plant Physiol., 2008. 148(4): p. 2050-8
  16. Achard P,Genschik P
    Releasing the brakes of plant growth: how GAs shutdown DELLA proteins.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2009. 60(4): p. 1085-92
  17. Hanada K, et al.
    Functional compensation of primary and secondary metabolites by duplicate genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2011. 28(1): p. 377-82
  18. Kang HG, et al.
    Overexpression of FTL1/DDF1, an AP2 transcription factor, enhances tolerance to cold, drought, and heat stresses in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Sci., 2011. 180(4): p. 634-41
  19. Qin F, et al.
    SPINDLY, a negative regulator of gibberellic acid signaling, is involved in the plant abiotic stress response.
    Plant Physiol., 2011. 157(4): p. 1900-13
  20. Gaudinier A, et al.
    Enhanced Y1H assays for Arabidopsis.
    Nat. Methods, 2011. 8(12): p. 1053-5
  21. Meinke DW
    A survey of dominant mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Trends Plant Sci., 2013. 18(2): p. 84-91
  22. Kazama D,Kurusu T,Mitsuda N,Ohme-Takagi M,Tada Y
    Involvement of elevated proline accumulation in enhanced osmotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis conferred by chimeric repressor gene silencing technology.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2014. 9(3): p. e28211
  23. Jin J, et al.
    An Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulatory Map Reveals Distinct Functional and Evolutionary Features of Novel Transcription Factors.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2015. 32(7): p. 1767-73
  24. Lehti-Shiu MD, et al.
    Molecular Evidence for Functional Divergence and Decay of a Transcription Factor Derived from Whole-Genome Duplication in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Physiol., 2015. 168(4): p. 1717-34
  25. Kazama D, et al.
    Identification of Chimeric Repressors that Confer Salt and Osmotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis.
    Plants (Basel), 2013. 2(4): p. 769-85
  26. Song GQ,Gao X
    Transcriptomic changes reveal gene networks responding to the overexpression of a blueberry DWARF AND DELAYED FLOWERING 1 gene in transgenic blueberry plants.
    BMC Plant Biol., 2017. 17(1): p. 106
  27. Imran QM, et al.
    Transcriptome profile of NO-induced Arabidopsis transcription factor genes suggests their putative regulatory role in multiple biological processes.
    Sci Rep, 2018. 8(1): p. 771