PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Raphanus raphanistrum
ZF-HD Family
Species TF ID Description
RrC10018_p1ZF-HD family protein
RrC12344_p1ZF-HD family protein
RrC1302_p6ZF-HD family protein
RrC14263_p1ZF-HD family protein
RrC16134_p1ZF-HD family protein
RrC17277_p1ZF-HD family protein
RrC180_p3ZF-HD family protein
RrC212_p1ZF-HD family protein
RrC23125_p1ZF-HD family protein
RrC27453_p1ZF-HD family protein
RrC29477_p1ZF-HD family protein
RrC33195_p1ZF-HD family protein
RrC3355_p3ZF-HD family protein
RrC33624_p1ZF-HD family protein
RrC3431_p1ZF-HD family protein
RrC3551_p1ZF-HD family protein
RrC372_p3ZF-HD family protein
RrC488_p5ZF-HD family protein
RrC6034_p1ZF-HD family protein
RrC7180_p2ZF-HD family protein
RrC7442_p1ZF-HD family protein
RrC7630_p1ZF-HD family protein
RrC8190_p2ZF-HD family protein
RrC8349_p2ZF-HD family protein
RrC9265_p2ZF-HD family protein
RrC957_p2ZF-HD family protein
ZF-HD Family Introduction

This group of sequences described by a 54-residue domain found in the N-terminal region of plant proteins, the vast majority of which contain a ZF-HD class homeobox domain toward the C terminus. The region between the two domains typically is rich in low complexity sequence. The companion ZF-HD homeobox domain is described in INTERPRO:IPR006455.

A one-hybrid screen resulted in the cloning of four different members of a novel class of plant homeodomain proteins, which are most likely involved in the mesophyll-specific expression of the C4 PEPCase gene in C4 species of the genus Flaveria. Inspection of the homeodomains of the four proteins reveals that they share many common features with homeodomains described so far, but there are also significant differences. Interestingly, this class of homeodomain proteins occurs also in Arabidopsis thaliana and other C3 plants. One-hybrid experiments as well as in vitro DNA binding studies confirmed that these novel homeodomain proteins specifically interact with the proximal region of the C4 PEPCase (C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase) gene. The N-terminal domains of the homeodomain proteins contain highly conserved sequence motifs. Two-hybrid experiments show that these motifs are sufficient to confer homo- or heterodimer formation between the proteins. Mutagenesis of conserved cysteine residues within the dimerization domain indicates that these residues are essential for dimer formation. Therefore, we designate this novel class of homeobox proteins ZF-HD, for zinc finger homeodomain protein. Our data suggest that the ZF-HD class of homeodomain proteins may be involved in the establishment of the characteristic expression pattern of the C4 PEPCase gene.

Windhovel A, Hein I, Dabrowa R, Stockhaus J.
Characterization of a novel class of plant homeodomain proteins that bind to the C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene of Flaveria trinervia.
Plant Mol Biol. 2001 Jan;45(2):201-14.
PMID: 11289511