PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Malus domestica
ZF-HD Family
Species TF ID Description
MDP0000023799ZF-HD family protein
MDP0000123799ZF-HD family protein
MDP0000163471ZF-HD family protein
MDP0000181626ZF-HD family protein
MDP0000199110ZF-HD family protein
MDP0000199202ZF-HD family protein
MDP0000200799ZF-HD family protein
MDP0000208739ZF-HD family protein
MDP0000249735ZF-HD family protein
MDP0000253357ZF-HD family protein
MDP0000259786ZF-HD family protein
MDP0000277477ZF-HD family protein
MDP0000286456ZF-HD family protein
MDP0000287735ZF-HD family protein
MDP0000322140ZF-HD family protein
MDP0000372694ZF-HD family protein
MDP0000380874ZF-HD family protein
MDP0000438181ZF-HD family protein
MDP0000462091ZF-HD family protein
MDP0000532986ZF-HD family protein
MDP0000614531ZF-HD family protein
MDP0000640510ZF-HD family protein
MDP0000787720ZF-HD family protein
MDP0000790705ZF-HD family protein
MDP0000804580ZF-HD family protein
MDP0000821959ZF-HD family protein
MDP0000847771ZF-HD family protein
MDP0000934043ZF-HD family protein
ZF-HD Family Introduction

This group of sequences described by a 54-residue domain found in the N-terminal region of plant proteins, the vast majority of which contain a ZF-HD class homeobox domain toward the C terminus. The region between the two domains typically is rich in low complexity sequence. The companion ZF-HD homeobox domain is described in INTERPRO:IPR006455.

A one-hybrid screen resulted in the cloning of four different members of a novel class of plant homeodomain proteins, which are most likely involved in the mesophyll-specific expression of the C4 PEPCase gene in C4 species of the genus Flaveria. Inspection of the homeodomains of the four proteins reveals that they share many common features with homeodomains described so far, but there are also significant differences. Interestingly, this class of homeodomain proteins occurs also in Arabidopsis thaliana and other C3 plants. One-hybrid experiments as well as in vitro DNA binding studies confirmed that these novel homeodomain proteins specifically interact with the proximal region of the C4 PEPCase (C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase) gene. The N-terminal domains of the homeodomain proteins contain highly conserved sequence motifs. Two-hybrid experiments show that these motifs are sufficient to confer homo- or heterodimer formation between the proteins. Mutagenesis of conserved cysteine residues within the dimerization domain indicates that these residues are essential for dimer formation. Therefore, we designate this novel class of homeobox proteins ZF-HD, for zinc finger homeodomain protein. Our data suggest that the ZF-HD class of homeodomain proteins may be involved in the establishment of the characteristic expression pattern of the C4 PEPCase gene.

Windhovel A, Hein I, Dabrowa R, Stockhaus J.
Characterization of a novel class of plant homeodomain proteins that bind to the C4 phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene of Flaveria trinervia.
Plant Mol Biol. 2001 Jan;45(2):201-14.
PMID: 11289511