PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT2G42430.1
Common NameASL18, LBD16, MHK10.15
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Family LBD
Protein Properties Length: 245aa    MW: 26465.4 Da    PI: 7.865
Description lateral organ boundaries-domain 16
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT2G42430.1genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
       DUF260   1 aCaaCkvlrrkCakdCvlapyfpaeq.pkkfanvhklFGasnvlkllkalpeeeredamsslvyeAearardPvyGavgvilklqqqleqlkaelall 97 
                  +C aCk+lrrkCa+dC++apyf +eq +++fa++hk+FGasnv+kll ++p ++r +a+ +++yeA+ar++dPvyG+v++i++lqqq++ l++++ ++
                  7***********************9989******************************************************************9999 PP

       DUF260  98 kee 100
  AT2G42430.1 113 KAQ 115
                  887 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
PROSITE profilePS5089122.86614116IPR004883Lateral organ boundaries, LOB
PfamPF031954.2E-3715113IPR004883Lateral organ boundaries, LOB
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0010311Biological Processlateral root formation
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0008019anatomyleaf lamina base
PO:0009025anatomyvascular leaf
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 245 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
3D Structure ? help Back to Top
PDB ID Evalue Query Start Query End Hit Start Hit End Description
5ly0_A4e-3781094104LOB family transfactor Ramosa2.1
5ly0_B4e-3781094104LOB family transfactor Ramosa2.1
Search in ModeBase
Expression -- UniGene ? help Back to Top
UniGene ID E-value Expressed in
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
Expression AtlasAT2G42430-
Expression -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniprotDEVELOPMENTAL STAGE: During lateral root formation, expressed in the lateral root primordia, and the developing, emerged, and mature lateral roots. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:19717544}.
UniprotTISSUE SPECIFICITY: Expressed in roots and faintly in shoots. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:12068116}.
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIRLOB-domain protein gene LBD16. This gene contains one auxin-responsive element (AuxRE).
UniProtTranscriptional activator (PubMed:19717544, PubMed:22974309). Involved in lateral root formation. Regulated by the transcriptional activators ARF7 and ARF19 (PubMed:17259263). Functions in the initiation and emergence of lateral roots, in conjunction with LBD18, downstream of ARF7 and ARF19 (PubMed:19717544, PubMed:23749813). Acts downstream of the auxin influx carriers AUX1 and LAX1 in the regulation of lateral root initiation and development (PubMed:26059335). {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17259263, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19717544, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22974309, ECO:0000269|PubMed:23749813, ECO:0000269|PubMed:26059335}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. LBD16 and LBD18 might function in a combinatorial manner in lateral root formation.
    [PMID: 19717544]
  2. Results indicate that the localized activity of LBD16/ASL18 and its related LBD/ASLs is involved in the symmetry breaking of lateral root (LR) founder cells for LR initiation, a key step for constructing the plant root system.
    [PMID: 22278921]
  3. Data show that overexpression of each of the LBD genes promotes callus formation in the absence of exogenous phytohormones, while suppression of LBD function inhibits the callus induction process.
    [PMID: 22508267]
  4. LBD16, LBD29, and LBD18 are involved in cell cycle progression of the pericycle in response to auxin.
    [PMID: 22699776]
  5. PUCHI co-acts with LBD16 and LBD18 to control lateral root primordium development and lateral root emergence.
    [PMID: 23749813]
  6. LBD16 is a key molecular player in the xylem pole pericycle cells during giant cells and gall development.
    [PMID: 24803293]
  7. Results suggest that Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain16 and 18 (LBD16 and LBD18) are important regulators of lateral root (LR) initiation and development downstream of AUXIN1 (AUX1) and LIKE-AUXIN3 (LAX3) auxin influx carriers.
    [PMID: 26059335]
  8. Data show that the conserved Leu or valine residues in the coiled-coil motif are critical for the dimerization of LBD16 or LBD18 transcription factors.
    [PMID: 28336771]
  9. conserved Leu or Val residues in the coiled-coil motifs of LBD16 and LBD18 are critical for their dimerization as well as the transcriptional regulation to display their biological functions.
    [PMID: 29227192]
  10. These findings define the AtbZIP59-LBD complex as a critical regulator of auxin-induced cell fate change during callus formation, which provides a new insight into the molecular regulation of plant regeneration and possible developmental programs.
    [PMID: 29358751]
  11. the WOX11-LBD16 pathway promotes pluripotency acquisition in callus cells.
    [PMID: 29361138]
  12. acts downstream of ARF7 and ARF19 in formation of adventitious roots
    [PMID: 30704405]
Binding Motif ? help Back to Top
Motif ID Method Source Motif file
Motif logo
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
Regulation -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtINDUCTION: By auxin. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15659631, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17259263, ECO:0000269|PubMed:23749813}.
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Upstream Regulators) ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT1G19220 (A), AT5G20730 (A)
Regulation -- Hormone ? help Back to Top
Source Hormone
Interaction ? help Back to Top
Source Intact With
BioGRIDAT2G42430, AT2G45420
Phenotype -- Disruption Phenotype ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtDISRUPTION PHENOTYPE: Reduced number of lateral roots. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:19717544}.
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT2G42430
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankAB4738510.0AB473851.1 Arabidopsis thaliana ASL18 mRNA for ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2-like 18 protein, complete cds.
GenBankAF3453390.0AF345339.1 Arabidopsis thaliana MHK10.15/At2g42430 mRNA, complete cds.
GenBankAF4103340.0AF410334.1 Arabidopsis thaliana At2g42430/MHK10.15 mRNA, complete cds.
GenBankAF4478900.0AF447890.1 Arabidopsis thaliana LOB DOMAIN 16 (LBD16) mRNA, complete cds.
GenBankBT0008660.0BT000866.1 Arabidopsis thaliana At2g42430/MHK10.15 mRNA, complete cds.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_565973.10.0lateral organ boundaries-domain 16
SwissprotQ9SLB70.0LBD16_ARATH; LOB domain-containing protein 16
STRINGAT2G42430.10.0(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Orthologous Group ? help Back to Top
LineageOrthologous Group IDTaxa NumberGene Number
Representative plantOGRP40515100
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Iwakawa H, et al.
    The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana, required for formation of a symmetric flat leaf lamina, encodes a member of a novel family of proteins characterized by cysteine repeats and a leucine zipper.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2002. 43(5): p. 467-78
  2. Shuai B,Reynaga-Peña CG,Springer PS
    The lateral organ boundaries gene defines a novel, plant-specific gene family.
    Plant Physiol., 2002. 129(2): p. 747-61
  3. Xiao YL,Malik M,Whitelaw CA,Town CD
    Cloning and sequencing of cDNAs for hypothetical genes from chromosome 2 of Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2002. 130(4): p. 2118-28
  4. Yamada K, et al.
    Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome.
    Science, 2003. 302(5646): p. 842-6
  5. Goda H, et al.
    Comprehensive comparison of auxin-regulated and brassinosteroid-regulated genes in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2004. 134(4): p. 1555-73
  6. Okushima Y, et al.
    Functional genomic analysis of the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR gene family members in Arabidopsis thaliana: unique and overlapping functions of ARF7 and ARF19.
    Plant Cell, 2005. 17(2): p. 444-63
  7. Laplaze L, et al.
    GAL4-GFP enhancer trap lines for genetic manipulation of lateral root development in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2005. 56(419): p. 2433-42
  8. Okushima Y,Fukaki H,Onoda M,Theologis A,Tasaka M
    ARF7 and ARF19 regulate lateral root formation via direct activation of LBD/ASL genes in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2007. 19(1): p. 118-30
  9. Matsumura Y,Iwakawa H,Machida Y,Machida C
    Characterization of genes in the ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2/LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (AS2/LOB) family in Arabidopsis thaliana, and functional and molecular comparisons between AS2 and other family members.
    Plant J., 2009. 58(3): p. 525-37
  10. Lee HW,Kim NY,Lee DJ,Kim J
    LBD18/ASL20 regulates lateral root formation in combination with LBD16/ASL18 downstream of ARF7 and ARF19 in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2009. 151(3): p. 1377-89
  11. Ikeyama Y,Tasaka M,Fukaki H
    RLF, a cytochrome b(5)-like heme/steroid binding domain protein, controls lateral root formation independently of ARF7/19-mediated auxin signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant J., 2010. 62(5): p. 865-75
  12. Goh T,Joi S,Mimura T,Fukaki H
    The establishment of asymmetry in Arabidopsis lateral root founder cells is regulated by LBD16/ASL18 and related LBD/ASL proteins.
    Development, 2012. 139(5): p. 883-93
  13. Fan M,Xu C,Xu K,Hu Y
    LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN transcription factors direct callus formation in Arabidopsis regeneration.
    Cell Res., 2012. 22(7): p. 1169-80
  14. Kim MJ,Kim J
    Identification of nuclear localization signal in ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2-LIKE18/LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN16 (ASL18/LBD16) from Arabidopsis.
    J. Plant Physiol., 2012. 169(12): p. 1221-6
  15. Feng Z,Zhu J,Du X,Cui X
    Effects of three auxin-inducible LBD members on lateral root formation in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Planta, 2012. 236(4): p. 1227-37
  16. Lee HW,Kim MJ,Kim NY,Lee SH,Kim J
    LBD18 acts as a transcriptional activator that directly binds to the EXPANSIN14 promoter in promoting lateral root emergence of Arabidopsis.
    Plant J., 2013. 73(2): p. 212-24
  17. M
    Role of a respiratory burst oxidase of Lepidium sativum (cress) seedlings in root development and auxin signalling.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2012. 63(18): p. 6325-34
  18. Kim J,Lee HW
    Direct activation of EXPANSIN14 by LBD18 in the gene regulatory network of lateral root formation in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2013. 8(2): p. e22979
  19. Lee HW,Kim MJ,Park MY,Han KH,Kim J
    The conserved proline residue in the LOB domain of LBD18 is critical for DNA-binding and biological function.
    Mol Plant, 2013. 6(5): p. 1722-5
  20. Kang NY,Lee HW,Kim J
    The AP2/EREBP gene PUCHI Co-Acts with LBD16/ASL18 and LBD18/ASL20 downstream of ARF7 and ARF19 to regulate lateral root development in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2013. 54(8): p. 1326-34
  21. Bargmann BO,Birnbaum KD,Brenner ED
    An undergraduate study of two transcription factors that promote lateral root formation.
    Biochem Mol Biol Educ, 2014 May-Jun. 42(3): p. 237-45
  22. Cabrera J, et al.
    A role for LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-DOMAIN 16 during the interaction Arabidopsis-Meloidogyne spp. provides a molecular link between lateral root and root-knot nematode feeding site development.
    New Phytol., 2014. 203(2): p. 632-45
  23. Cabrera J,Fenoll C,Escobar C
    Genes co-regulated with LBD16 in nematode feeding sites inferred from in silico analysis show similarities to regulatory circuits mediated by the auxin/cytokinin balance in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2015. 10(3): p. e990825
  24. Jin J, et al.
    An Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulatory Map Reveals Distinct Functional and Evolutionary Features of Novel Transcription Factors.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2015. 32(7): p. 1767-73
  25. Lee HW,Cho C,Kim J
    Lateral Organ Boundaries Domain16 and 18 Act Downstream of the AUXIN1 and LIKE-AUXIN3 Auxin Influx Carriers to Control Lateral Root Development in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Physiol., 2015. 168(4): p. 1792-806
  26. Lee HW, et al.
    Dimerization in LBD16 and LBD18 Transcription Factors Is Critical for Lateral Root Formation.
    Plant Physiol., 2017. 174(1): p. 301-311
  27. Olmo R, et al.
    Molecular Transducers from Roots Are Triggered in Arabidopsis Leaves by Root-Knot Nematodes for Successful Feeding Site Formation: A Conserved Post-Embryogenic De novo Organogenesis Program?
    Front Plant Sci, 2017. 8: p. 875
  28. Lee K,Seo PJ
    High-temperature promotion of callus formation requires the BIN2-ARF-LBD axis in Arabidopsis.
    Planta, 2017. 246(4): p. 797-802
  29. Jeon E, et al.
    LBD14/ASL17 Positively Regulates Lateral Root Formation and is Involved in ABA Response for Root Architecture in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2017. 58(12): p. 2190-2201
  30. Pandey SK,Kim J
    Coiled-coil motif in LBD16 and LBD18 transcription factors are critical for dimerization and biological function in arabidopsis.
    Plant Signal Behav, 2018. 13(1): p. e1411450
  31. Xu C, et al.
    Control of auxin-induced callus formation by bZIP59-LBD complex in Arabidopsis regeneration.
    Nat Plants, 2018. 4(2): p. 108-115
  32. Liu J, et al.
    The WOX11-LBD16 Pathway Promotes Pluripotency Acquisition in Callus Cells During De Novo Shoot Regeneration in Tissue Culture.
    Plant Cell Physiol., 2018. 59(4): p. 734-743
  33. Lee HW, et al.
    LBD16 and LBD18 acting downstream of ARF7 and ARF19 are involved in adventitious root formation in Arabidopsis.
    BMC Plant Biol., 2019. 19(1): p. 46