PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID AT2G02820.1
Common NameAtMYB88, MYB88
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Camelineae; Arabidopsis
Family MYB
Protein Properties Length: 455aa    MW: 51339 Da    PI: 6.3894
Description myb domain protein 88
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
AT2G02820.1genomeTAIRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
  Myb_DNA-binding  3 rWTteEdellvdavkqlGggtWktIartmgkgRtlkqcksrwqkyl 48
                      W++eEd++l + + + G+++W+ Ia++++  ++  qc+ rw++yl
                     6*****************************.*************97 PP

  Myb_DNA-binding   1 rgrWTteEdellvdavkqlGggtWktIartmgkgRtlkqcksrwqk 46 
                      rg W++eEd ll +a +++G++ W+ Ia+ +  gRt++ +k+r+ +
                      789*******************.*********.**********976 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
PROSITE profilePS5129414.0012576IPR017930Myb domain
SMARTSM007172.0E-122978IPR001005SANT/Myb domain
CDDcd001671.51E-113276No hitNo description
PfamPF139211.4E-153393No hitNo description
PROSITE profilePS5129420.81277131IPR017930Myb domain
SMARTSM007178.4E-1581129IPR001005SANT/Myb domain
CDDcd001671.57E-1085126No hitNo description
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0006357Biological Processregulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter
GO:0009553Biological Processembryo sac development
GO:0010052Biological Processguard cell differentiation
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0000981Molecular FunctionRNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0001135Molecular Functiontranscription factor activity, RNA polymerase II transcription factor recruiting
GO:0043565Molecular Functionsequence-specific DNA binding
GO:0044212Molecular Functiontranscription regulatory region DNA binding
Plant Ontology ? help Back to Top
PO Term PO Category PO Description
PO:0000013anatomycauline leaf
PO:0000037anatomyshoot apex
PO:0000084anatomyplant sperm cell
PO:0000230anatomyinflorescence meristem
PO:0000293anatomyguard cell
PO:0009006anatomyshoot system
PO:0009009anatomyplant embryo
PO:0009025anatomyvascular leaf
PO:0009052anatomyflower pedicel
PO:0020137anatomyleaf apex
PO:0025022anatomycollective leaf structure
PO:0001054developmental stagevascular leaf senescent stage
PO:0001078developmental stageplant embryo cotyledonary stage
PO:0001081developmental stagemature plant embryo stage
PO:0004507developmental stageplant embryo bilateral stage
PO:0007095developmental stageLP.08 eight leaves visible stage
PO:0007098developmental stageLP.02 two leaves visible stage
PO:0007103developmental stageLP.10 ten leaves visible stage
PO:0007115developmental stageLP.04 four leaves visible stage
PO:0007123developmental stageLP.06 six leaves visible stage
PO:0007611developmental stagepetal differentiation and expansion stage
PO:0007616developmental stageflowering stage
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 455 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
3D Structure ? help Back to Top
PDB ID Evalue Query Start Query End Hit Start Hit End Description
Search in ModeBase
Expression -- UniGene ? help Back to Top
UniGene ID E-value Expressed in
At.115760.0flower| root
Expression -- Microarray ? help Back to Top
Source ID E-value
Expression AtlasAT2G02820-
Expression -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniprotDEVELOPMENTAL STAGE: Accumulates during ovule development. Detected at low levels in ovules and in the embryo sac of stage 13 flowers (PubMed:22915737). Not detected during embryo development. In seedlings and young plants, present in some spots (presumably stomata) in cotyledons and later in veins of hypocotyls as well as of petioles, hydathodes, stipules, in roots and lateral root primordia, and in the lower halves of first leaves. Detected in the phloem, as well as in the cortex of inflorescence stems. In roots, confined in developing xylem cells in the part of the differentiation zone with well-developed root hairs (PubMed:26391711). Present in lateral root tips and subsequently in a larger area. Accumulates in columella cells of lateral roots (PubMed:26578169). Expressed at the base of developing flowers, including ovaries. In flowers, detected in parts of the major stem axis, and in the anther at some stages of development, present in veins of sepals and accumulates progressively in ovaries, filaments, receptacles, and ovules. Also detected in the valve margins and receptacles of siliques and at the joint between the stigma and the style, as well as in the tapetum around pollen grains in maturing anthers (PubMed:26391711). {ECO:0000269|PubMed:22915737, ECO:0000269|PubMed:26391711, ECO:0000269|PubMed:26578169}.
UniprotTISSUE SPECIFICITY: Expressed at low levels in all organs including roots, leaves, hypocotyls stems, flowers, siliques and buds. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16155180, ECO:0000269|PubMed:26391711}.
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
TAIREncodes a putative transcription factor (MYB88), involved in stomata development, double loss of MYB88 and FLP (MYB124) activity results in a failure of guard mother cells (GMCs) to adopt the guard cell fate, thus they continue to divide resulting in abnormal stomata consisting of clusters of numerous guard cell-like cells. This phenotype is enhanced in double mutants over the single mutant flp phenotype.
UniProtTranscription factor that binds to DNA in promoters cis-regulatory element 5'-GGCGCGC-3' of cell cycle genes, including cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and components of the pre-replication complex (PubMed:20675570, PubMed:24687979). Binds to DNA in promoters cis-regulatory element 5'-AGCCG-3' of auxin regulated genes (e.g. PIN3 and PIN7) (PubMed:26578169). Together with FAMA and MYB124, ensures that stomata contain just two guard cells (GCs) by enforcing a single symmetric precursor cell division before stomatal maturity (PubMed:24571519). Represses the expression of the mitosis-inducing factors CDKB1-1 and CDKA-1, specifically required for the last guard mother cells (GMC) symmetric divisions in the stomatal pathway (PubMed:20675570, PubMed:24687979). Represses CYCA2-3 in newly formed guard cells (PubMed:21772250). Together with MYB88, regulates stomata spacing by restricting divisions late in the stomatal cell lineage thus limiting the number of GMC divisions (PubMed:16155180). In collaboration with CDKB1-1 and CDKB1-2, restrict the G1/S transition and chloroplast and nuclear number during stomatal formation, and normally maintain fate and developmental progression throughout the stomatal cell lineage (PubMed:24123248). Involved in sensing and/or transducing abiotic stress (e.g. drought and salt), probably via the positive regulation of NAC019 (PubMed:21105921). Regulates female reproduction being required for entry into megasporogenesis, probably via the regulation of cell cycle genes (PubMed:22915737). Plays a minor role in lateral roots (LRs) initiation (PubMed:26578065). Involved complementarily in establishing the gravitropic set-point angles of lateral roots by regulating the transcription of PIN3 and PIN7 in gravity-sensing cells of primary and lateral roots (PubMed:26578169). {ECO:0000269|PubMed:16155180, ECO:0000269|PubMed:20675570, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21105921, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21772250, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22915737, ECO:0000269|PubMed:24123248, ECO:0000269|PubMed:24571519, ECO:0000269|PubMed:24687979, ECO:0000269|PubMed:26578065, ECO:0000269|PubMed:26578169}.
Function -- GeneRIF ? help Back to Top
  1. flp-1 myb88 double mutant plants show enhanced sensitivity to drought and salt stress.
    [PMID: 21105921]
  2. FLP and MYB88 are important regulators of entry into megasporogenesis, and probably act via the regulation of cell cycle genes.
    [PMID: 22915737]
  3. FLP and MYB88 restrict the G1/S transition during stomatal formation.
    [PMID: 24123248]
  4. Both flp and myb88 genes were expressed in many, previously unreported locations, consistent with the possibility of additional functions for FLP and MYB88. Moreover, expression domains especially of FLP display sharp cutoffs or boundaries.
    [PMID: 26391711]
  5. FLP and MYB88 expression specifically determines the temporal-spatial patterns of PIN3 and PIN7 transcription that are closely associated with their preferential functions during root responses to gravity.
    [PMID: 26578169]
  6. FLP and MYB88 inhibit the production of nonstomatal epidermal cells largely in a growth-condition-dependent manner.
    [PMID: 27620181]
Binding Motif ? help Back to Top
Motif ID Method Source Motif file
Motif logo
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
Regulation -- ATRM (Manually Curated Upstream Regulators) ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator (A: Activate/R: Repress)
ATRM AT3G50410 (A)
Phenotype -- Mutation ? help Back to Top
Source ID
T-DNA ExpressAT2G02820
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankAK2265750.0AK226575.1 Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for hypothetical protein, clone: RAFL07-13-I18.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqNP_565291.20.0myb domain protein 88
SwissprotF4IRB40.0MYB88_ARATH; Transcription factor MYB88
STRINGAT2G02820.20.0(Arabidopsis thaliana)
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Riechmann JL, et al.
    Arabidopsis transcription factors: genome-wide comparative analysis among eukaryotes.
    Science, 2000. 290(5499): p. 2105-10
  2. Stracke R,Werber M,Weisshaar B
    The R2R3-MYB gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol., 2001. 4(5): p. 447-56
  3. Jiao Y, et al.
    A genome-wide analysis of blue-light regulation of Arabidopsis transcription factor gene expression during seedling development.
    Plant Physiol., 2003. 133(4): p. 1480-93
  4. Lai LB, et al.
    The Arabidopsis R2R3 MYB proteins FOUR LIPS and MYB88 restrict divisions late in the stomatal cell lineage.
    Plant Cell, 2005. 17(10): p. 2754-67
  5. Duarte JM, et al.
    Expression pattern shifts following duplication indicative of subfunctionalization and neofunctionalization in regulatory genes of Arabidopsis.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2006. 23(2): p. 469-78
  6. Yanhui C, et al.
    The MYB transcription factor superfamily of Arabidopsis: expression analysis and phylogenetic comparison with the rice MYB family.
    Plant Mol. Biol., 2006. 60(1): p. 107-24
  7. Diet A, et al.
    The Arabidopsis root hair cell wall formation mutant lrx1 is suppressed by mutations in the RHM1 gene encoding a UDP-L-rhamnose synthase.
    Plant Cell, 2006. 18(7): p. 1630-41
  8. Ohashi-Ito K,Bergmann DC
    Arabidopsis FAMA controls the final proliferation/differentiation switch during stomatal development.
    Plant Cell, 2006. 18(10): p. 2493-505
  9. Skirycz A, et al.
    The DOF transcription factor OBP1 is involved in cell cycle regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant J., 2008. 56(5): p. 779-92
  10. Xie Z,Li D,Wang L,Sack FD,Grotewold E
    Role of the stomatal development regulators FLP/MYB88 in abiotic stress responses.
    Plant J., 2010. 64(5): p. 731-9
  11. Vanneste S, et al.
    Developmental regulation of CYCA2s contributes to tissue-specific proliferation in Arabidopsis.
    EMBO J., 2011. 30(16): p. 3430-41
  12. Makkena S,Lee E,Sack FD,Lamb RS
    The R2R3 MYB transcription factors FOUR LIPS and MYB88 regulate female reproductive development.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2012. 63(15): p. 5545-58
  13. Lee E,Liu X,Eglit Y,Sack F
    FOUR LIPS and MYB88 conditionally restrict the G1/S transition during stomatal formation.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2013. 64(16): p. 5207-19
  14. Ding Y, et al.
    Four distinct types of dehydration stress memory genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    BMC Plant Biol., 2013. 13: p. 229
  15. Yang K, et al.
    Requirement for A-type cyclin-dependent kinase and cyclins for the terminal division in the stomatal lineage of Arabidopsis.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2014. 65(9): p. 2449-61
  16. Jin J, et al.
    An Arabidopsis Transcriptional Regulatory Map Reveals Distinct Functional and Evolutionary Features of Novel Transcription Factors.
    Mol. Biol. Evol., 2015. 32(7): p. 1767-73
  17. Lei Q, et al.
    The FOUR LIPS and MYB88 transcription factor genes are widely expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana during development.
    Am. J. Bot., 2015. 102(9): p. 1521-8
  18. Wang HZ, et al.
    Transcriptional regulation of PIN genes by FOUR LIPS and MYB88 during Arabidopsis root gravitropism.
    Nat Commun, 2015. 6: p. 8822
  19. Yang M
    The FOUR LIPS (FLP) and MYB88 genes conditionally suppress the production of nonstomatal epidermal cells in Arabidopsis cotyledons.
    Am. J. Bot., 2016. 103(9): p. 1559-66
  20. Xu Z, et al.
    DGE-seq analysis of MUR3-related Arabidopsis mutants provides insight into how dysfunctional xyloglucan affects cell elongation.
    Plant Sci., 2017. 258: p. 156-169
  21. Qu Y, et al.
    Peroxisomal CuAO╬ and its product H2O2 regulate the distribution of auxin and IBA-dependent lateral root development in Arabidopsis.
    J. Exp. Bot., 2017. 68(17): p. 4851-4867
  22. Xie Y, et al.
    An atypical R2R3 MYB transcription factor increases cold hardiness by CBF-dependent and CBF-independent pathways in apple.
    New Phytol., 2018. 218(1): p. 201-218
  23. Kranz HD, et al.
    Towards functional characterisation of the members of the R2R3-MYB gene family from Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant J., 1998. 16(2): p. 263-76