PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Transcription Factor Information
Basic Information | Signature Domain | Sequence | 
Basic Information? help Back to Top
TF ID KFK26940.1
Taxonomic ID
Taxonomic Lineage
cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Viridiplantae; Streptophyta; Streptophytina; Embryophyta; Tracheophyta; Euphyllophyta; Spermatophyta; Magnoliophyta; Mesangiospermae; eudicotyledons; Gunneridae; Pentapetalae; rosids; malvids; Brassicales; Brassicaceae; Arabideae; Arabis
Family bHLH
Protein Properties Length: 362aa    MW: 39932.1 Da    PI: 4.9087
Description bHLH family protein
Gene Model
Gene Model ID Type Source Coding Sequence
KFK26940.1genomeMPIPBRView CDS
Signature Domain? help Back to Top
Signature Domain
No. Domain Score E-value Start End HMM Start HMM End
         HLH   1 rrrahnerErrRRdriNsafeeLrellPkaskapskKlsKaeiLekAveYIksLq 55 
                 ++++h  +Er+RR+++N+ +  Lr+l+P     + k+ + a+i   +veYI++Lq
                 6899*************************9...9********************9 PP

Protein Features ? help Back to Top
3D Structure
Database Entry ID E-value Start End InterPro ID Description
CDDcd000838.89E-1395153No hitNo description
Gene3DG3DSA:, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain
SuperFamilySSF474592.22E-1796171IPR011598Myc-type, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain
PROSITE profilePS5088814.93997148IPR011598Myc-type, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain
PfamPF000102.0E-1098149IPR011598Myc-type, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain
SMARTSM003536.0E-11103154IPR011598Myc-type, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain
Gene Ontology ? help Back to Top
GO Term GO Category GO Description
GO:0010374Biological Processstomatal complex development
GO:0005634Cellular Componentnucleus
GO:0046983Molecular Functionprotein dimerization activity
Sequence ? help Back to Top
Protein Sequence    Length: 362 aa     Download sequence    Send to blast
Functional Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtTranscription factor acting as an integration node for stomata and brassinosteroid (BR) signaling pathways to control stomatal initiation and development (PubMed:22466366, PubMed:28507175). Activates transcription when in the presence of SCRM/ICE1 (PubMed:28507175). Functions as a dimer with SCRM or SCRM2 during stomatal initiation (PubMed:18641265). Required for the initiation, the spacing and the formation of stomata, by promoting the first asymmetric cell divisions (PubMed:25843888, PubMed:25680231, PubMed:19008449). Together with FMA and MUTE, modulates the stomata formation. Involved in the regulation of growth reduction under osmotic stress (e.g. mannitol), associated with a quick decrease of meristemoid mother cells (MMCs) number lower stomatal index and density (PubMed:25381317). {ECO:0000269|PubMed:17183265, ECO:0000269|PubMed:17183267, ECO:0000269|PubMed:18641265, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19008449, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22466366, ECO:0000269|PubMed:25381317, ECO:0000269|PubMed:25680231, ECO:0000269|PubMed:25843888, ECO:0000269|PubMed:28507175}.
Cis-element ? help Back to Top
Regulation -- Description ? help Back to Top
Source Description
UniProtINDUCTION: Repressed by brassinazole (BRZ), thus leading to a reduced number of stomata in hypocotyls (PubMed:25680231). Inhibited by low relative humidity (LRH) via epigenetic CG methylation, thus leading to a reduced stomatal index (PubMed:22442411). Repressed by YDA (at protein level) (PubMed:19008449). Post-transcriptional decrease of protein level in response to osmotic stress (e.g. mannitol), through the action of a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade; this repression is reversed by the MAPK kinase inhibitor PD98059 (PubMed:25381317). {ECO:0000269|PubMed:19008449, ECO:0000269|PubMed:22442411, ECO:0000269|PubMed:25381317, ECO:0000269|PubMed:25680231}.
Regulation -- PlantRegMap ? help Back to Top
Source Upstream Regulator Target Gene
Annotation -- Nucleotide ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
GenBankAJ6304980.0AJ630498.1 Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for hypothetical protein, clone At5g53210.
Annotation -- Protein ? help Back to Top
Source Hit ID E-value Description
RefseqXP_006401728.10.0transcription factor SPEECHLESS
SwissprotQ700C70.0SPCH_ARATH; Transcription factor SPEECHLESS
TrEMBLA0A087GAN80.0A0A087GAN8_ARAAL; Uncharacterized protein
STRINGA0A087GAN80.0(Arabis alpina)
Orthologous Group ? help Back to Top
LineageOrthologous Group IDTaxa NumberGene Number
Best hit in Arabidopsis thaliana ? help Back to Top
Hit ID E-value Description
AT5G53210.11e-148bHLH family protein
Publications ? help Back to Top
  1. Casson S,Gray JE
    Influence of environmental factors on stomatal development.
    New Phytol., 2008. 178(1): p. 9-23
  2. Skinner MK,Rawls A,Wilson-Rawls J,Roalson EH
    Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor gene family phylogenetics and nomenclature.
    Differentiation, 2010. 80(1): p. 1-8
  3. Yang K,Jiang M,Le J
    A new loss-of-function allele 28y reveals a role of ARGONAUTE1 in limiting asymmetric division of stomatal lineage ground cell.
    J Integr Plant Biol, 2014. 56(6): p. 539-49
  4. Balcerowicz M,Ranjan A,Rupprecht L,Fiene G,Hoecker U
    Auxin represses stomatal development in dark-grown seedlings via Aux/IAA proteins.
    Development, 2014. 141(16): p. 3165-76
  5. Lau OS, et al.
    Direct roles of SPEECHLESS in the specification of stomatal self-renewing cells.
    Science, 2014. 345(6204): p. 1605-9
  6. Davies KA,Bergmann DC
    Functional specialization of stomatal bHLHs through modification of DNA-binding and phosphoregulation potential.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2014. 111(43): p. 15585-90
  7. Zhang Y,Wang P,Shao W,Zhu JK,Dong J
    The BASL polarity protein controls a MAPK signaling feedback loop in asymmetric cell division.
    Dev. Cell, 2015. 33(2): p. 136-49
  8. de Marcos A, et al.
    Transcriptional profiles of Arabidopsis stomataless mutants reveal developmental and physiological features of life in the absence of stomata.
    Front Plant Sci, 2015. 6: p. 456
  9. Horst RJ, et al.
    Molecular Framework of a Regulatory Circuit Initiating Two-Dimensional Spatial Patterning of Stomatal Lineage.
    PLoS Genet., 2015. 11(7): p. e1005374
  10. Klermund C, et al.
    LLM-Domain B-GATA Transcription Factors Promote Stomatal Development Downstream of Light Signaling Pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana Hypocotyls.
    Plant Cell, 2016. 28(3): p. 646-60
  11. Gu F, et al.
    Arabidopsis CSLD5 Functions in Cell Plate Formation in a Cell Cycle-Dependent Manner.
    Plant Cell, 2016. 28(7): p. 1722-37
  12. Raissig MT,Abrash E,Bettadapur A,Vogel JP,Bergmann DC
    Grasses use an alternatively wired bHLH transcription factor network to establish stomatal identity.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2016. 113(29): p. 8326-31
  13. Castorina G,Fox S,Tonelli C,Galbiati M,Conti L
    A novel role for STOMATAL CARPENTER 1 in stomata patterning.
    BMC Plant Biol., 2016. 16(1): p. 172
  14. Fu ZW,Wang YL,Lu YT,Yuan TT
    Nitric oxide is involved in stomatal development by modulating the expression of stomatal regulator genes in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Sci., 2016. 252: p. 282-289
  15. Zhang Y,Guo X,Dong J
    Phosphorylation of the Polarity Protein BASL Differentiates Asymmetric Cell Fate through MAPKs and SPCH.
    Curr. Biol., 2016. 26(21): p. 2957-2965
  16. Sakai Y, et al.
    The chemical compound bubblin induces stomatal mispatterning in Arabidopsis by disrupting the intrinsic polarity of stomatal lineage cells.
    Development, 2017. 144(3): p. 499-506
  17. de Marcos A, et al.
    A Mutation in the bHLH Domain of the SPCH Transcription Factor Uncovers a BR-Dependent Mechanism for Stomatal Development.
    Plant Physiol., 2017. 174(2): p. 823-842
  18. Dow GJ,Berry JA,Bergmann DC
    Disruption of stomatal lineage signaling or transcriptional regulators has differential effects on mesophyll development, but maintains coordination of gas exchange.
    New Phytol., 2017. 216(1): p. 69-75
  19. Lee JH,Jung JH,Park CM
    Light Inhibits COP1-Mediated Degradation of ICE Transcription Factors to Induce Stomatal Development in Arabidopsis.
    Plant Cell, 2017. 29(11): p. 2817-2830
  20. Zoulias N,Harrison EL,Casson SA,Gray JE
    Molecular control of stomatal development.
    Biochem. J., 2018. 475(2): p. 441-454
  21. Han X, et al.
    Jasmonate Negatively Regulates Stomatal Development in Arabidopsis Cotyledons.
    Plant Physiol., 2018. 176(4): p. 2871-2885
  22. Houbaert A, et al.
    POLAR-guided signalling complex assembly and localization drive asymmetric cell division.
    Nature, 2018. 563(7732): p. 574-578