PlantTFDB
PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0 v4.0
Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus
bHLH Family
Species TF ID Description
XP_024958794.1bHLH family protein
XP_024959080.1bHLH family protein
XP_024959800.1bHLH family protein
XP_024959801.1bHLH family protein
XP_024960072.1bHLH family protein
XP_024960379.1bHLH family protein
XP_024960734.1bHLH family protein
XP_024960758.1bHLH family protein
XP_024961039.1bHLH family protein
XP_024961807.1bHLH family protein
XP_024961808.1bHLH family protein
XP_024961852.1bHLH family protein
XP_024961887.1bHLH family protein
XP_024962379.1bHLH family protein
XP_024962573.1bHLH family protein
XP_024963138.1bHLH family protein
XP_024963139.1bHLH family protein
XP_024964426.1bHLH family protein
XP_024964484.1bHLH family protein
XP_024964485.1bHLH family protein
XP_024964513.1bHLH family protein
XP_024964692.1bHLH family protein
XP_024964693.1bHLH family protein
XP_024965705.1bHLH family protein
XP_024965946.1bHLH family protein
XP_024966060.1bHLH family protein
XP_024966658.1bHLH family protein
XP_024966659.1bHLH family protein
XP_024967245.1bHLH family protein
XP_024967344.1bHLH family protein
XP_024968023.1bHLH family protein
XP_024968040.1bHLH family protein
XP_024968440.1bHLH family protein
XP_024968766.1bHLH family protein
XP_024969156.1bHLH family protein
XP_024969680.1bHLH family protein
XP_024969786.1bHLH family protein
XP_024969865.1bHLH family protein
XP_024970817.1bHLH family protein
XP_024970818.1bHLH family protein
XP_024970819.1bHLH family protein
XP_024970973.1bHLH family protein
XP_024971007.1bHLH family protein
XP_024971253.1bHLH family protein
XP_024971312.1bHLH family protein
XP_024971446.1bHLH family protein
XP_024971489.1bHLH family protein
XP_024971490.1bHLH family protein
XP_024971491.1bHLH family protein
XP_024971492.1bHLH family protein
XP_024971493.1bHLH family protein
XP_024971494.1bHLH family protein
XP_024971495.1bHLH family protein
XP_024971734.1bHLH family protein
XP_024971735.1bHLH family protein
XP_024971872.1bHLH family protein
XP_024972042.1bHLH family protein
XP_024972079.1bHLH family protein
XP_024972105.1bHLH family protein
XP_024972122.1bHLH family protein
XP_024972243.1bHLH family protein
XP_024972244.1bHLH family protein
XP_024972573.1bHLH family protein
XP_024973077.1bHLH family protein
XP_024973078.1bHLH family protein
XP_024973237.1bHLH family protein
XP_024973238.1bHLH family protein
XP_024973274.1bHLH family protein
XP_024973319.1bHLH family protein
XP_024973331.1bHLH family protein
XP_024973332.1bHLH family protein
XP_024973435.1bHLH family protein
XP_024973804.1bHLH family protein
XP_024974897.1bHLH family protein
XP_024975152.1bHLH family protein
XP_024975153.1bHLH family protein
XP_024975154.1bHLH family protein
XP_024975317.1bHLH family protein
XP_024975318.1bHLH family protein
XP_024975459.1bHLH family protein
XP_024975478.1bHLH family protein
XP_024975520.1bHLH family protein
XP_024975551.1bHLH family protein
XP_024975588.1bHLH family protein
XP_024975653.1bHLH family protein
XP_024975699.1bHLH family protein
XP_024975802.1bHLH family protein
XP_024975958.1bHLH family protein
XP_024976061.1bHLH family protein
XP_024976062.1bHLH family protein
XP_024976136.1bHLH family protein
XP_024976243.1bHLH family protein
XP_024977043.1bHLH family protein
XP_024977049.1bHLH family protein
XP_024977096.1bHLH family protein
XP_024977178.1bHLH family protein
XP_024977198.1bHLH family protein
XP_024977267.1bHLH family protein
XP_024977326.1bHLH family protein
XP_024977327.1bHLH family protein
XP_024977329.1bHLH family protein
XP_024977367.1bHLH family protein
XP_024977404.1bHLH family protein
XP_024977544.1bHLH family protein
XP_024977545.1bHLH family protein
XP_024977546.1bHLH family protein
XP_024977547.1bHLH family protein
XP_024978217.1bHLH family protein
XP_024978218.1bHLH family protein
XP_024978255.1bHLH family protein
XP_024978256.1bHLH family protein
XP_024978403.1bHLH family protein
XP_024978531.1bHLH family protein
XP_024978669.1bHLH family protein
XP_024978693.1bHLH family protein
XP_024978694.1bHLH family protein
XP_024978817.1bHLH family protein
XP_024979083.1bHLH family protein
XP_024979084.1bHLH family protein
XP_024979393.1bHLH family protein
XP_024979577.1bHLH family protein
XP_024979646.1bHLH family protein
XP_024979885.1bHLH family protein
XP_024979894.1bHLH family protein
XP_024979997.1bHLH family protein
XP_024980439.1bHLH family protein
XP_024980440.1bHLH family protein
XP_024980644.1bHLH family protein
XP_024980712.1bHLH family protein
XP_024980768.1bHLH family protein
XP_024980769.1bHLH family protein
XP_024980770.1bHLH family protein
XP_024980771.1bHLH family protein
XP_024980956.1bHLH family protein
XP_024980993.1bHLH family protein
XP_024981535.1bHLH family protein
XP_024981729.1bHLH family protein
XP_024981837.1bHLH family protein
XP_024982288.1bHLH family protein
XP_024982305.1bHLH family protein
XP_024982314.1bHLH family protein
XP_024982324.1bHLH family protein
XP_024982738.1bHLH family protein
XP_024983124.1bHLH family protein
XP_024983510.1bHLH family protein
XP_024983512.1bHLH family protein
XP_024983535.1bHLH family protein
XP_024983536.1bHLH family protein
XP_024984137.1bHLH family protein
XP_024984142.1bHLH family protein
XP_024984215.1bHLH family protein
XP_024984723.1bHLH family protein
XP_024985985.1bHLH family protein
XP_024986281.1bHLH family protein
XP_024986282.1bHLH family protein
XP_024986558.1bHLH family protein
XP_024986563.1bHLH family protein
XP_024986716.1bHLH family protein
XP_024986773.1bHLH family protein
XP_024987228.1bHLH family protein
XP_024987235.1bHLH family protein
XP_024987294.1bHLH family protein
XP_024987839.1bHLH family protein
XP_024987947.1bHLH family protein
XP_024988427.1bHLH family protein
XP_024988428.1bHLH family protein
XP_024988502.1bHLH family protein
XP_024988756.1bHLH family protein
XP_024988849.1bHLH family protein
XP_024988957.1bHLH family protein
XP_024989003.1bHLH family protein
XP_024989139.1bHLH family protein
XP_024989434.1bHLH family protein
XP_024989509.1bHLH family protein
XP_024989531.1bHLH family protein
XP_024989539.1bHLH family protein
XP_024989546.1bHLH family protein
XP_024989556.1bHLH family protein
XP_024989803.1bHLH family protein
XP_024989902.1bHLH family protein
XP_024990286.1bHLH family protein
XP_024990287.1bHLH family protein
XP_024990560.1bHLH family protein
XP_024990864.1bHLH family protein
XP_024990866.1bHLH family protein
XP_024990910.1bHLH family protein
XP_024991230.1bHLH family protein
XP_024991326.1bHLH family protein
XP_024992009.1bHLH family protein
XP_024992012.1bHLH family protein
XP_024992263.1bHLH family protein
XP_024992264.1bHLH family protein
XP_024992511.1bHLH family protein
XP_024992906.1bHLH family protein
XP_024993004.1bHLH family protein
XP_024993259.1bHLH family protein
XP_024993467.1bHLH family protein
XP_024994512.1bHLH family protein
XP_024994564.1bHLH family protein
XP_024994656.1bHLH family protein
XP_024994780.1bHLH family protein
XP_024994923.1bHLH family protein
XP_024994959.1bHLH family protein
XP_024994993.1bHLH family protein
XP_024995049.1bHLH family protein
XP_024995364.1bHLH family protein
XP_024995520.1bHLH family protein
XP_024995957.1bHLH family protein
XP_024996688.1bHLH family protein
XP_024996759.1bHLH family protein
XP_024996760.1bHLH family protein
XP_024996922.1bHLH family protein
XP_024996946.1bHLH family protein
XP_024996986.1bHLH family protein
XP_024996993.1bHLH family protein
bHLH Family Introduction

The basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are a superfamily of transcription factors that have been well characterized in nonplant eukaryotes, especially in mammalian systems, in which considerable structural, functional, and phylogenetic analyses have been performed. The data indicate that bHLH proteins are important regulatory components in transcriptional networks in these systems, controlling a diversity of processes from cell proliferation to cell lineage establishment.

This family is defined by the bHLH signature domain, which consists of 60 amino acids with two functionally distinct regions. The basic region, located at the N-terminal end of the domain, is involved in DNA binding and consists of 15 amino acids with a high number of basic residues. The HLH region, at the C-terminal end, functions as a dimerization domain and is constituted mainly of hydrophobic residues that form two amphipathic -helices separated by a loop region of variable sequence and length. Outside of the conserved bHLH domain, these proteins exhibit considerable sequence divergence. Cocrystal structural analysis has shown that the interaction between the HLH regions of two separate polypeptides leads to the formation of homodimers and/or heterodimers and that the basic region of each partner binds to half of the DNA recognition sequence. Some bHLH proteins form homodimers or restrict their heterodimerization activity to closely related members of the family. On the other hand, some can form heterodimers with one or several different partners.

The core DNA sequence motif recognized by the bHLH proteins is a consensus hexanucleotide sequence known as the E-box (5'-CANNTG-3'). There are different types of E-boxes, depending on the identity of the two central bases. One of the most common is the palindromic G-box (5'-CACGTG-3'). Certain conserved amino acids within the basic region of the protein provide recognition of the core consensus site, whereas other residues in the domain dictate specificity for a given type of E-box . In addition, flanking nucleotides outside of the hexanucleotide core have been shown to play a role in binding specificity, and there is evidence that a loop residue in the protein plays a role in DNA binding through elements that lie outside of the core recognition sequence.

Toledo-Ortiz G, Huq E, Quail PH.
The Arabidopsis basic/helix-loop-helix transcription factor family.
Plant Cell. 2003 Aug;15(8):1749-70
PMID: 12897250