PlantRegMap/PlantTFDB v5.0
Plant Transcription Factor Database
Previous version: v3.0 v4.0
Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus
Species TF ID Description
XP_024961438.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024961982.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024962343.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024963778.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024966041.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024968289.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024969696.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024969701.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024969819.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024969944.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024970045.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024970046.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024970048.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024970302.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024970303.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024971728.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024971729.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024972003.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024972162.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024972164.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024972188.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024972590.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024972591.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024973657.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024973973.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024974786.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024974875.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024975192.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024975987.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024975988.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024976188.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024976371.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024976372.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024976373.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024976376.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024976378.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024976425.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024976851.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024976852.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024976853.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024976854.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024976856.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024976908.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024976909.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024976910.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024976912.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024977146.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024977147.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024977577.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024977578.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024978591.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024980292.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024982230.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024984059.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024987412.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024989404.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024989405.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024989406.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024989407.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024989408.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024989409.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024990839.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024990846.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024990847.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024991235.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024992518.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024992576.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024992577.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024995477.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024995942.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024996531.1MIKC_MADS family protein
XP_024996532.1MIKC_MADS family protein
MIKC_MADS (MIKC-type MADS) Family Introduction

The best studied plant MADS-box transcription factors are those involved in floral organ identity determination. Analysis of homeotic floral mutants resulted in the formulation of a genetic model, named the ABC model, that explains how the combined functions of three classes of genes (A, B, and C) determine the identity of the four flower organs (reviewed by Coen and Meyerowitz, 1991). Arabidopsis has two A-class genes (AP1 and AP2 [Bowman et al., 1989]), two B-class genes (PI and AP3), and a single C-class gene (AG), of which only AP2 is not a MADS-box gene. Recently, it was shown that the Arabidopsis B- and C-function genes, which control petal, stamen, and carpel development, are functionally dependent on three highly similar MADS-box genes, SEP1, SEP2, and SEP3 (Pelaz et al., 2000). Interestingly, only when mutant knockout alleles of the three SEP genes were combined in a triple sep1 sep2 sep3 mutant was loss of petal, stamen, and carpel identity observed, resulting in a flower composed of only sepals. This example shows that redundancy occurs in the MADS-box gene family, which complicates reverse genetic strategies for gene function analysis. The SHP genes provide another example of MADS-box gene redundancy. shp1 and shp2 single mutants do not exhibit any phenotypic effect, whereas in the double mutant, development of the dehiscence zone is disturbed in the fruit, resulting in a failure to release seeds (Liljegren et al., 2000)[1].

It has been proposed that there are at least 2 lineages (type I and type II) of MADS-box genes in plants, animals, and fungi. Most of the well-studied plant genes are type II genes and have three more domains than type I genes from the N to the C terminus of the protein:intervening (I) domain (~30 codons), keratin-lik e coiled-coil (K) domain (~70 codons), and Cterminal (C) domain (variable length). These genes are called the MIKC-type and are specific to plants[2].

The MADS-box is a DNA binding domain of 58 amino acids that binds DNA at consensus recognition sequences known as CArG boxes [CC(A/T)6GG] (Hayes et al., 1988; Riechmann et al., 1996b). The interaction with DNA has been studied in detail for the human and yeast MADS-box proteins thanks to the resolved crystal structures (Pellegrini et al., 1995; Santelli and Richmond, 2000). The I domain is less conserved and contributes to the specification of dimerization. The K domain is characterized by a coiled-coil structure, which facilitates the dimerization of MADS-box proteins (Davies et al., 1996; Fan et al., 1997). The C domain is the least conserved domain; in some cases, it has been shown to contain a transactivation domain or to contribute to the formation of multimeric MADS-box protein complexes (Egea-Cortines et al., 1999; Honma and Goto, 2001)[1].

1.Parenicova L, de Folter S, Kieffer M, Horner DS, Favalli C, Busscher J, Cook HE, Ingram RM, Kater MM, Davies B, Angenent GC, Colombo L.
Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the complete MADS-box transcription factor family in Arabidopsis: new openings to the MADS world.
Plant Cell. 2003 Jul;15(7):1538-51.
PMID: 12837945
2.Nam J, dePamphilis CW, Ma H, Nei M.
Antiquity and evolution of the MADS-box gene family controlling flower development in plants.
Mol Biol Evol. 2003 Sep;20(9):1435-47. Epub 2003 May 30.
PMID: 12777513